“a very difficult experiment”: lay initiative and involvement in the establishment of anglican residential colleges in sydney’
“A Very Difficult Experiment”: Lay Initiative and Involvement in the Establishment of Anglican Residential Colleges in Sydney’s Universities.
Principal Fellow, The Kensington Colleges UNSW
Dead Rats & Determination:
Shortly before his death in 1958, Archbishop Howard Mowll wrote to Sydney diocesan clergy commending a 'Survey of Church of England Opinion on Secondary and Higher Education'. Included among the questions on higher education were: Do you think the existing church colleges adequately fulfil their function of providing religious training for university students? In view of the fact that the existing residential colleges only provide for a very small proportion of present-day students, do you think that new church colleges should be established within the University? At the Universities of New England and New South Wales new residential colleges have been established by the university independently of the churches. Is this a better solution than churches providing new colleges? The question was also asked: Do you think that 'academic freedom' includes the right for a university teacher to teach or practice a way of life which is considered immoral by prevailing opinion, provided he is sincere in his own belief? was prepared by Dr Harold Fallding, then a research sociologist at the University of Sydney, and later Professor of Sociology and now Emeritus Professor of the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. In the early 1950s, when ninety-nine year leases of two hotels on the Church of England Glebe Estate near Sydney University - the University and the Kentish Hotels - came to an end, Harold Fallding along with Laurie Lyons, then a lecturer in physical chemistry at Sydney and later Professor of Chemistry and now Emeritus Professor of the University of Queensland, took the initiative to occupy the University Hotel. They literally camped in it! Determined as they were to prevent the University itself from gaining the property, and to establish an affordable place of accommodation for students, it was not a pleasant experience. Laurie Lyons was awoken on the first night by a rat crawling across his face. The place was infested with them, so much so that Laurie Lyons persuaded Broughton Knox, then Deputy Principal of Moore College, to go to the chemist to buy 'thallium chloride', a poisonous substance about which there had been some controversy but which apparently was easily obtained according to Laurie Lyons' plan, not by himself as a lecturer in chemistry but by a cleric in clerical collar! The substance was put on bread, wrapped in newspaper and spread about the building which then "stank of dead rats for two weeks".And not just of dead rats. The newly appointed Principal of Moore College, Marcus Loane, organised most of his students and a number of others, including his wife and her brother, Broughton, to go to the hotel to clean it up. Archbishop Loane recalled that "the stink from beer was dreadful .The smell of beer might well have gone but the rats seemed to hang around, for as Edwin Judge, then a reader in history at Sydney University and from 1961 to 1964 Warden of what came
1 New College Archives. There appears to be no record of the results of the survey, apart from some rough tabulations held in the New College Archives. 2 Harold & Margaret Fallding moved to Canada in the 1960s and have lived there since. 3 Interview with Emeritus Professor Lawrence Lyons at Kenmore Qld. 28th May 1997 4 Interview with Archbishop Sir Marcus Loane at Warrawee NSW 20th May 1997
to be called 'University Hall', recalled: "residents were to be attracted to this rat- infested derelict building for one shilling a night". The 1958 survey, and indeed the occupation of the University Hotel, clearly had as their background the foundation of denominational residential colleges in Australian universities; the significant growth of the Evangelical Union on Australian university campuses, and especially at Sydney University; the challenges of the philosophy of Professor John Anderson, the Free Thought Society, and their perceived links with the spread of communism; the enormous increase in demand for student accommodation in the post War years; and a view of the existing church colleges as being places soaked in liberal theology and alcohol. For Us or “a Guinness”:
Harold Fallding's wife, biologist Dr Margaret Hardy, had been Vice-Principal of the Women's College and was a member of the Board of Reference for the Evangelical Union's 'Mission in the University' in June 1951 - a board that included Stuart Babbage, T. C. Hammond, Marcus Loane, Howard Mowll, G. H. Morling, Anna Hogg and Paul White. The Mission was led by the Reverend Dr Howard Guinness, then Rector of St. Barnabas' Church, Broadway, and Chaplain to Anglican students at Sydney University, who had also established the presence of the Inter-Varsity Fellowship of Evangelical Unions in Australia at Sydney and Melbourne Universities in 1930. The Mission was seen by its organisers as "the greatest single attempt so far made to confront Australian University students with the claims of our Lord Jesus Christ" having a presence and impact in the colleges. Assistant missioners were appointed to be resident in them, among whom were Archdeacon (later Bishop) Frank Hulme-Moir and Mr Stanley Kurrle (later Canon and Headmaster of The Kings School, Parramatta) at St. Paul's College, and Mr (later Bishop) John Reid resident at St. Andrew's. Howard Guinness addressed an after dinner meeting for residents of colleges at the Women's College, during which a group of St. Andrew's students entered carrying a beer barrell on which was painted in gold letters “Guinness is good for you”! Around the University appeared posters: “He that is not for us is a Guinness”! St. Andrew's College - like St. Paul's, St. John's and, to a degree, Wesley Colleges - was particularly seen by those in the evangelical campus movement as a place of privilege and irresponsibility, dominated by binge drinking and bastardisation in the guise of bonding; where, according to its Vice-Principal from 1934 to 1937, Richard Ashburner, "the fresher system was uncontrolled and terrific; College property was there to be smashed or damaged without excuse or reason".Much later, Edwin Judge, who took up residence in St. Andrew's College in 1956 and became a tutor there in 1958, recalled that though he loved the camaraderie of the staff and of the Senior Common Room, he was shocked by what he regarded particularly in relation to new students as "deliberate physical debasement and moral intimidation of the grossest kind".It would shape his attitude to the foundation and nature of new colleges in later years.
5 Interview with Emeritus Professor Edwin Judge at New College UNSW 29th April 1997 6 The papers of Archbishop D. W. B. Robinson , EU, The Samuel Marsden Archives, Moore Theological College Library, Newtown NSW 7 Howard Guinness Journey Among Students Anglican Information Office, Sydney, 1977, p.150 8 Jack, R. I. The St Andrew’s Book: St Andrew’s College within the University of Sydney, 3rd Ed., The Principal and Councillors of St Andrew’s College, Sydney 1989, pp. 42-43 9 Interview with Edwin Judge
More than this, however, St. Andrew's represented the teaching and influence of Samuel Angus, Professor of New Testament in the St. Andrew's Theological Hall from 1914 to the 1940s. Although he was a strong critic of the overtly secular nature of Australian society and of the exclusion of religion from the teaching of the University, he represented in the inter-war period what some of the more conservative evangelical Christian churchmen saw as the increasing failure of the denominational residential colleges to reflect within the context of the universities the authenticity and authority of the Bible in its revelation of the person and work of Jesus Christ. His 'modernist' theology led him to be regarded by conservatives and fundamentalists, as the late Susan Emilsen notes in her book 'A Whiff of Heresy', as the "enemy within". association between the Student Christian Movement and Samuel Angus; the Professor's friendship with Arthur Garnsey, Warden of St. Paul's College from 1916 to 1944; and the relative strength of the Student Christian Movement in the colleges, all contributed to a view that the denominational residential colleges were at best weak and diffuse in making any Christian impact on the University and in particular on the communities within the colleges themselves. Sydney University and St. Paul’s … “a grievous mistake”: That the church colleges should make such an impact on the University was cause for concern expressed in the report of the Select Committee of the Legislative Council of NSW, appointed in 1859 to "inquire into the present state of the Sydney University". The Report concluded that "a grievous mistake has been made in the establishment of Affiliated Colleges, which are not only not at all necessary as adjuncts to the University, but actually involve in their association with it a violation of the great principle on which it was founded as a strictly secular institutthe Report went on to recommend that all connection between the University and the affiliated colleges should cease; that those involved with St Paul's College be paid out and the buildings used to house the professors of the University; and that in relation to the proposed colleges "it would be far wiser on the part of the Government to pay over to the denominations interested any sums to which they are at present by law entitled - such sums to be applied as they may think fit - than to suffer the affiliated Colleges to be proceeded with" It was an indication of the significant tension and dispute that not only surrounded the establishment of affiliated denominational colleges, but also the birth of university education in Australia, that such a conclusion was reached in just over one year after the first residential college, St. Paul's, had received its first resident students. When William Charles Wentworth proposed in 1849 that a university be established in Sydney, he was very much aware of the movement to reform the collegiate and exclusive universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and of the strength of sectarian rivalry in the colony of New South Wales as denominations sought to influence and to determine the nature of schooling and the development of a system of education. He believed that the University "must be kept entirely free from the teachers of any
10 Susan E. Emilsen A Whiff of Heresy: Samuel Angus and the Presbyterian Church in New South Wales NSW University Press, Kensington, NSW, 1991, p.171 11 While acknowledging the size and strength of the SCM in the 1930s, Archbishop Loane has recalled that their “notices were everywhere … they all seemed to be on the same theme: ‘Christ and the slum problem’, ‘Christ and the economic situation’; … they weighed heavily on the issues of social reform, justice and so on; there wasn’t any gospel content really.”(Interview with Sir Marcus Loane) 12 Report of the Select Committee on the Sydney University Votes & Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly, NSW, Sydney, 1859-1860, p.9 13 Ibid p.12
religion whatever".was clearly opposed to the domination of any one church or interest group and to dogmatic teaching; the University, founded upon liberal and enlightened principles, would be "a fountain of knowledge at whose springs all may drink, be they Christian, Mohammedan, Jew or Hindu".e University "should be open to all, though influenced by none".he acknowledged the possibility of affiliated colleges being established in which religious instruction could take place, though he was opposed to any claim such denominational foundations might make on the endowment of the University. Wentworth's determination that the new University would be free of any dogmatic religious teaching was supported by one of the leading Church of England laymen in the Colony at that time, Sir Charles Nicholson. Nicholson was the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and one of the first Trustees of St. Mark's Church, Darling Point. As also the University's founding Vice-Provost, he noted at the University's inauguration in October 1852 that to "make revealed religion a special element in our teaching would be at once to destroy the catholic character of the institution, and limit its influence merely to one single class of religionists. Such a proposition would be totally inconsistent with the spirit of an institution established and maintained by public funds, to which all alike contribute, and in the benefits of which all have a right to share".sidential colleges were contemplated where religious instruction and other activity "might be carried on simultaneously and in perfect harmony with (the secular instruction) of the University". It was not a view shared by the first Anglican Bishop, William Grant Broughton, who was "fully persuaded that no system of education can be sound that is not based on the principles of revealed religion".He opposed the foundation of a university that was entirely secular in character and, when offered a place on the first Senate, he refused on the grounds that the University "will be the great emporium of false and anti-church views in this hemisphere".larly supported by the Anglican Bishops of Newcastle and New Zealand, William Tyrrell and George Selwyn. Such opposition had also been strongly expressed in letters to the 'Sydney Morning Herald': ". the express exclusion of no other portion of the community than that class whose office it is to uphold the interests and teach the principles and practice of religion, proves beyond question to every reasoning mind that the Sydney university is intended to ". academical institutions founded upon the principle of excluding religion are generally nurseries of infidelity". This opposition was also extended to the proposal to establish a church college in association with the University. While Bishop Broughton was in England in 1852Bishop Tyrrell declared that establishing such a college would not "remove the
14 Sydney Morning Herald 7th September 1849, p.2 15 J. J. Auchmuty ‘The Idea of the University in its Australian Setting: An Historical Survey’, in The Australian University Vol.1, No.2, September 1963, p.246 16 Sydney Morning Herald op.cit. 17 H. E. Barff A Short Historical Account of the University of Sydney Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1902, p.23 18 Ibid 19 F. T. Whitington William Grant Broughton, Bishop of Australia Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1936, p.103 20 G. P. Shaw Patriach and Patriot: William Grant Broughton 1788-1853, Colonial Statesman and Ecclesiastic Academy Press for Melbourne University Press, Brisbane, 1978, p.246 21 ‘B. A.’ Sydney Morning Herald 8th October 1849, p.3 22 ‘Laocoon’ Ibid. 17th October 1849, p.3 23 Bishop Broughton died the following year, before returning to Sydney
objectionable principle of the University" and that the greater number of students not residing in college would "still be destitute of all religious teaching".a number of prominent laymen, no doubt strengthened in their resolve by what they perceived as Bishop Broughton's attempts in England to secure greater power for the Bishop over his clergy and over the laity, were determined not to be prevented from the task of establishing a Church of England residential college. It was "the duty of members of the Church of England promptly to make provision for the moral and religious superintendence of their youth by the establishment of a separate College; independent as to its internal discipline and rules, but in permanent alliance with the university as at present constituted" resolved a meeting chaired by the Chief Justice, Sir Alfred Stephen, in December 1852 - a meeting called together by the Incumbent of Ashfield, Frederick Wilkinson, and Thomas Ware Smart, a member of the Legislative Council and one of the first Churchwardens of St. Mark's Darling of lay support for the University and for a church residential college that Bishops Tyrrell and Selwyn came to support a compromise arrangement whereby, in the Affiliated Colleges Act of 1854, the University, while insisting on the attendance of all matriculated students at the lectures of the University, agreed with a clause that before any honour or degree be conferred every student must produce a certificate of competent religious attainment from the Principal of the College he attended or from a religious teacher or other responsible person accredited by the Senate. se inevitably was seen, however, to contradict the requirement of there being no religious tests for entry to the University; it was never enforced and was removed by amendment to the Act in 1858, the year that St. Paul's College took in its first resident students. The establishment of a Church of England residential college in association with the University of Sydney had been achieved in spite of the lack of episcopal support and with strong lay initiative and involvement. The nature of that involvement is perhaps further seen in the Affiliated Colleges Act providing for an amount of up to twenty thousand pounds from government revenue to match whatever the College founders raised for the cost of the College building, but not before ten thousand pounds had been so subscribed by the founders. A sum of five hundred pounds would be allocated in perpetuity to support the salary of the College Principal. This form of state aid would be seen as another compromise to the separation of the sacred from the secular that would not be provided in the foundation of colleges in Australia's other 'first' universities. As well as residence and care, and tutorial assistance, St. Paul's was to provide religious instruction; its Warden was required to be a clergyman. Nevertheless, it was a College in association with a 'godless' University, and was not seen as a place suitable for the training of diocesan clergy. The evangelical Bishop Frederick Barker, who succeeded Broughton, acted quickly to take advantage of the bequest of the house and grounds at Liverpool of Thomas Moore to found a separate theological college, to be opened in 1856 and to be known as Moore Theological College. In his interview with the Select Committee on the Sydney University in 1859, Professor Pell, the first Professor of Mathematics, noted that he did not think St. Paul's College was "in high favour at head quarters in the Church of England" and that this was likely to be attributed to "the connection of the College with the University".
24 Sydney Morning Herald 8th November 1852, p.2 25 H. E. Barff op.cit. p.50 26 C. E. Turney et al Australia’s First: A History of the University of Sydney, Volume 1, 1850-1939 Hale & Iremonger, Sydney NSW, 1991, p.81 27 Ibid, p.84 28 Minutes of Evidence taken before The Select Committee on the Sydney University Legislative Assembly of New South Wales, 27th September 1859, p.39
While Bishop Barker was the official 'Visitor' to St Paul's College and was present at the laying of its foundation stone, the focus of diocesan training for clergy was on Moore College. St Paul's and the University were certainly not held "in high favour at headquarters" despite the role of prominent laymen in the life of the University and, indeed, of the Reverend Canon Robert Allwood, elected to the Senate in 1855 and to the position of Vice-Chancellor from 1869 to 1882. Sir Charles Nicholson was Provost and then Chancellor from 1854 to 1862, and Sir William Manning, another warden of St Mark's Church Darling Point (1861-62), was Chancellor from 1878 to 1894. That Moore College later moved to a site adjacent to St Paul's and to the University was a somewhat ironic juxtaposition that would continue to be representative of the different perspectives of Anglican involvement in universities and colleges well into the future, with Moore College maintaining an evangelical defensiveness against any official link with the University. It marked Sydney. Clerical Chancellors, Laity and Liberal Instruction:
Though the secular pattern of Australian universities had been set, elsewhere “headquarters” was far more open to involvement and influence in the establishment of both the universities and of church colleges in association with them. The evangelical Charles Perry, first Bishop of Melbourne, accepted a place on the Council of Melbourne University and joined with laymen such as Sir Willialater Chief Justice of Victoria, and with William Wilson, first Professor of Mathematics, in the founding of Trinity College. Bishop Moorhouse, who succeeded Perry, served as Chancellor of the University from 1884 to 1886. Francis Nixon, first Bishop of Tasmania, re-established Christ College as the forerunner of a university college, and Bishop Henry Montgomery became, following its foundation in 1890, the University of Tasmania's first recipient of a degree and a member of its Council; Augustus Short, first Bishop of Adelaide, was Adelaide University's first Vice- Chancellor, its second Chancellor, and its first recipient of a degree; Archbishop St Clair Donaldson of Brisbane was closely involved in the establishment of the University of Queensland and was instrumental in the founding of St John's College in association with it; and Charles Riley, Bishop then Archbishop of Perth, was Deputy Chairman of the Royal Commission established in 1909 on a university for Western Australia, and became the University's second Chancellor. The first Chancellor, Sir Winthrop Hackett, who had been Alexander Leeper's deputy as Warden of Trinity College, Melbourne, left a substantial bequest to allow work to commence on the Anglican St George's College of which Archbishop Riley laid the foundation stone in March 1929, three months before his death. In Sydney and elsewhere, the denominational colleges were to be places that, while imposing no religious tests for entry, provided opportunity within them for religious instruction. Under successive Wardens of St Paul's College, divinity lectures, chapel services, prayers, talks and debates became part of the College's institutional life. As in later denominational foundations, chapel attendance was compulsory for many years, though excuses could always be found such as when "the cunning Pauline realises that the alarum clock, with its notorious sense of humour and playful habits of inaccuracy, can always be blamed for his absence from chapel".
29 Stawell was so influenced by a sermon of Bishop Perry in 1848 that “he resolved with God’s help to lead a new life” (Mary Stawell, in Ann Galbally Redmond Barry, an Anglo-Irish Australian Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Vic. 1995, p.71) 30 The Pauline No.1, May 1911, p.14
In the 1920s and 1930s, under A. H. Garnsey, a range of visiting preachers and speakers included P. A. Micklem (Rector of St James' Church, King Street), W. G. Hilliard (later Coadjutor Bishop in Sydney), E. H. Burgmann (later Bishop of Canberra-Goulburn), L. E. Bennett (Master of Wesley College), R. B. Madgwick (later Vice-Chancellor of the University of New England), J. S. Moyes (Bishop of Armidale), and the Warden's son, David Garnsey (then travelling Secretary for the Student Christian Movement). Attendances were noted as varying, though in 1939 and 1940 there was certainly one most regular attender - E. G. Whitlam, who served as Chapel Warden.continuing separation between Moore College and St Paul's, and between the Diocese and the University, preachers also included Principals of Moore College, David Davies and T. C. Hammond. There was a good friendship between Garnsey and Davies, the latter becoming a Fellow of St Paul's in 1918 and a lecturer in History and Economics for the University Extension Board. The same friendship did not develop between Garnsey and the stoutly evangelical Hammond. The Warden felt that, though his heart was not in it, he should invite his close neighbour at least once! He commented after Hammond had preached in St Paul's Chapel that "I don't think he made any impression at all on the men, and certainly I did not get anything helpful out of the sermon. He put me right off at the start by remarking that it wasn't much use talking about the Kingdom of God, unless one was
Much of this reflected, however, a growing division between the strength of the conservative evangelical position at the centre of the Diocese and the more liberal theology expressed within St Paul's and within other denominational colleges affiliated with the University of Sydney. The former was particularly seen in the leadership of Archbishop Howard Mowll, and in the growth since 1930 of the Evangelical Union (EU); the latter was expressed in the Student Christian Movement (SCM) and more particularly in the teaching of Professor Samuel Angus. “I had never understood the modernist” … the EU and the SCM:
Howard Mowll had been President of the Cambridge Inter-Collegiate Christian Union (CICCU) in 1911 and 1912, the years immediately following its separation from the Student Christian Movement over the SCM's desire to align itself more with the school of modern criticism and to broaden the scope of its membership. ordination and work as a tutor and later as Professor of History and Dean of Residence at Wycliffe College, Toronto, he became Assistant Bishop (later Bishop) in Western China in 1922. He visited Sydney in 1931 and noted the very attractive opportunity there was for evangelism in the University and the large boys' schools - presumably the church schools such as Kings, Shore and Trinity. The election in 1933 of Howard Mowll as Archbishop of Sydney, and the Archbishop's appointment of T. C. Hammond as Principal of Moore College in 1935, were clear and significant indications of the strength of conservative evangelicalism in the Diocese, and a pointer to its growth and dominance in the decades ahead. Also of significance was Howard Mowll's appointment in 1948 of the Reverend Dr Howard Guinness as Rector of St Barnabas' Church, Broadway, and Chaplain to Anglican students at the University. Marcus Loane recalls that there was great pressure at the time to appoint an ecumenical chaplain at Sydney University, a move that was viewed among evangelicals as a threat to their work on the campus. The Archbishop took up Marcus Loane's suggestion to appoint a Church of England chaplain in order to circumvent
31 Ibid No.37, 1939, p.8 32 David Garnsey Arthur Garnsey; a man for truth and freedom Kingsdale Press, Sydney, 1985, p.74 33 Marcus L. Loane Archbishop Mowll: The Biography of Howard West Kilvinton Mowll, Archbishop of Sydney and Primate of Australia Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1960, pp. 41-45
such a move.. Howard Guinness, as a travelling representative of the newly formed Inter-Varsity Fellowship of Evangelical Unions, had brought about the establishment of the EU at Sydney University in April 1930, with the early leadership of laymen such as H. D. M. Hercus, Ian Holt and Paul White. The EU grew slowly in the 1930s, but between 1939 and 1950 it grew from around one hundred members to more than two hundred and fifty. The consolidation of evangelical witness on the campus began with the 1951 EU Mission and with a Mission to the city of Sydney organised by the then Dean, Stuart Barton Babbage, with Englishman, the Reverend Bryan Green, addressing some thousands of people each day in the Town Hall and the Cathedral. The decade concluded with the 1959 Billy Graham Crusade, with a special meeting at Sydney University where four thousand staff and students "thronged the rolling lawns in front of Sydney's majestic stone Great Hall and Carillon Tower". 1958, with Billy Graham noting that he had "never visited any city in the world where . the influence and spirit of one man was so evident as Archbishop Mowll in Sydney". In the early 1930s, Howard Guinness had felt somewhat inadequate in dealing with what he and many evangelicals saw as the pervasive influence of liberal theology that marked the Student Christian Movement, and that had a particular hold in the residential colleges: "I had never understood the modernist and had never sympathetically tried to do so. This was a serious flaw when higher criticism was so common in the theological and university college Andrew's College and its Theological Hall had been home to Professor Samuel Angus, Professor of Exegetical Theology of the New Testament, since 1914. His modernist theology was strongly criticised by conservatives in Sydney, including C. Benson Barnett, a Congregationalist and Principal of the Sydney Missionary and Bible College at Croydon, who, along with others at the College, came to regard St Andrew's as a place where the "Word of God" was no longer taught.r speaker at student camps and conferences and especially at meetings of the Student Christian Movement. His frequent message was that Christianity was bigger than the Bible, which contained great riches, but that people should not be afraid to subject the Bible to the recognised methods of literary and historical a good friend of A. H. Garnsey, a fact that would not have helped in the relationship between the Diocese and St Paul's. It certainly helped to promote the view among evangelicals associated with the Evangelical Union that the residential colleges were failing properly to provide religious training to university students. This, combined with the development of the 'Fresher System' that was typified by acts that came to be regarded as unwarranted forms of debasement unbecoming of a civil community let alone one founded upon religious faith, was to have a significant influence on those who later, like Harold Fallding and Laurie Lyons, were determined to establish new residences for students founded upon more evangelical and sober lines. Free Thinkers and “Fundamentalists”:
Both liberals and conservatives nevertheless had a common cause of concern at this time - Professor John Anderson, Challis Professor of Philosophy at Sydney University from 1926 to 1958. Once allied more closely with the Communist cause,
34 Interview with Sir Marcus Loane 35 S. Barton Babbage & Ian Siggins Light Beneath the Cross: The Story of Billy Graham’s Crusade in Australia William Heinemann Lts, Melbourne, 1960, pp. 121-130 36 Ibid 37 Howard Guinness op.cit. p.73 38 Susan Emilsen op.cit. p.127 39 Ibid p.129
he became critical of anything characterised by totalitarianism and the restriction of freedom of thought and inquiry. He rejected religion. There were only “facts” or occurrences in space and time, and God was not one of them.which the Evangelical Union was formed at Sydney University, Anderson's followers formed the 'Society for Free Thought', later to be called the 'Free Thought Society'. In the 1930s and 1940s Anderson engaged in a number of debates about religious questions, including in 1941 a debate with T. C. Hammond that was arranged by Donald Robinson of the Evangelical Union and later Archbishop of Sydney, on the topic: "Are Christians Credulous?" Anderson had charged that "credulity" was represented in the University by the Labour Club (which included Marxists) and the "fundamentalists of the Evangelical Union". hat the anti-sectarian nature of the University was, under the influence of Anderson and the Free Thought Society, in danger of becoming anti-God.n came under attack in 1943 for views he expressed about religion having no place in education. A motion passed by the NSW Legislative Assembly condemning Anderson's statements as "a travesty of the Christian religion . calculated to undermine the principles which constitute a Christian State", raised the question of freedom of speech and inquiry. The Chancellor of the University, Sir Charles Bickerton Blackburn, on behalf of the Senate responded by affirming the University's position in there being no religious tests applied to the teachers or to the students, and that "nothing but harm could follow the stifling in a university of the spirit of free inquiry".not supporting Anderson's view, also came to the defence of such freedom of speech and inquiry: ". the value of discussion, despite the accompanying discord, is twofold. On the positive side it gives believers opportunity to set forth the truth as they see it . and negatively it compels students to examine the foundations of their faith - a proceeding which surely makes for honesty". There is little doubt, however, that the controversy about the expression of views such as those of John Anderson and his associate in the Department of Philosophy, Professor A. K. Stout, lay behind the reason for the inclusion in the questions prepared by Harold Fallding of the one concerning academic freedom. It was a controversy that would surface again dramatically in 1961, and that would foster further the view among evangelical clergy and laity, in contrast to that for example of A. H. Garnsey, and indeed to that expressed in the relationship between the leadership of the Anglican Church in the other major Australian cities and their universities, that the University was a place from which, in a sense, people needed to be rescued. At the least, it was seen, as Bishop Broughton had predicted, as "a great emporium of false and anti-church views".Laurie Lyons, who with Harold Fallding in 1954 occupied the vacated University Hotel to establish a hostel for students, recalls that in 1939 when he entered Sydney University he was shown around in Orientation Week by Dr Allan Lane, Broughton Knox's brother-in-law and a member of the Evangelical Union. From the balcony of the old Fisher Library, looking over the University scene, Dr Lane commented: "Wouldn't it be fine if all these people were in the kingdom of the Lord!" It was a thought that remained with Laurie Lyons.
40 Brian Kennedy A Passion to Oppose: John Anderson, Philosopher Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1995, p.192 41 Warren Nelson T. C. Hammond: Irish Christian – His Life and Legacy in Ireland and Australia The Banner of Truth Trust, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1994, p.112 42 Susan Emilsen op.cit. p.182 43 Daily Telegraph 5th May 1943, p.6 (a) 44 Ibid p.6 (b) 45 Interview with Laurie Lyons
NUCC … “a unique opportunity for an evangelical diocese”:
Following graduation and work as a tutor at Sydney, Laurie Lyons went on to University College London to do a PhD, and while there he stayed at the 'International Language Club', a collection of old houses in Croydon that shared a common dining room and housed some three hundred students. The communal life and sharing of ideas, together with his concern for evangelical witness and activity, influenced him on his return to Sydney University in 1953 to look for ways of establishing new halls and colleges in which the "the flavour of the (Christian) salt"
honorary Warden of the 'International Friendship Centre' at Drummoyne, established as a hostel for overseas students by Archbishop and Mrs Mowll. He was a medical graduate of Sydney University and had been greatly influenced by the newly formed Evangelical Union and in particular by Howard Guinness. His interest in history and writing led him to appointment as Assistant Editor, then Editor of the 'Medical Journal of Australia', a position he held for twenty years. Ron Winton suggested to Laurie Lyons that he speak about his interest in halls and colleges with Broughton Knox, who had just returned from Oxford University to take up the position of Vice-Principal of Moore College in 1954. Broughton Knox suggested approaching Archbishop Mowll.p was clearly sympathetic with any approach to provide housing and support for students under Christian supervision and care, and he no doubt influenced the decision of the Standing Committee of the Diocese to set up in the mid 1950s a Halls and Colleges Committee. The committee had oversight of the management of what became 'University Hall', as well as other hostels and halls such as a women's hostel in the other vacated hotel at Glebe, the Girls' Friendly Society (GFS) hostel at Glebe, the Church of England National Emergency Fund (CENEF) hostel, and a former Home Mission Society property at Petersham once known as 'Arleston' but later called 'Latimer House' - the new name, according to Laurie Lyons, suiting "our evangelical view of the world". Latimer, he noted, "is a great hero". The real aim, however, was for the establishment of colleges, especially one in association with Sydney University. Laurie Lyons recalled that the hostels "were never a planned thing, they just happened".shared by John Hawke, a science graduate of the University of Adelaide who had also been President of its Evangelical Union. After graduation and two years at Moore College he decided that he wanted to work as a layman before considering moving on to ordination. He was, however, to be a professor not a priest. Following postgraduate work at the University of New England and work in the School of Chemistry at the University of New South Wales, John Hawke moved to Sydney University as a junior to Laurie Lyons and to complete his PhD in chemistry. Although becoming involved in the halls and hostels work, he recalled that "essentially I saw them as boarding houses. I saw really to have an effective ministry in the University, not just for undergraduates but at an intellectual level - engaging the university with evangelical theology - one needed a proper base and a proper standing or status . I saw (the setting-up of colleges) as a unique opportunity for an evangelical diocese to make its imprint on the University system. Therefore a full college backed by the University, fully affiliated with it, financed partly by the government, with proper academic staff, could be a base for that in the long term".wth and increasing influence in the 1950s of the
46 Ibid 47 Ibid 48 Ibid 49 Ibid 50 Interview with Dr John Hawke at Byng, NSW, 23rd May 1997
Evangelical Union at Sydney University; with the history of a certain separation between the hierarchy of the Diocese and the University; with the concerns about liberal theology especially eminating from the residential colleges, together with the perceived association in such colleges of religion with over-indulgence of alcohol and with uncivilised behaviour; and with concern and controversy surrounding the impact of Andersonian free thought and atheism, there was a determination amongst these evangelical Anglicans to establish the kind of association with the University that just over a century before Bishop Broughton had determined firmly not to have. Ironically, however, it was much for the same reasons. In 1957 a New University Colleges Council was formed from the Halls and Colleges Committee, and enquiries began about possible sites for a college at Sydney University. There was particular concern about the need to have another college for women, though at the same time a Presbyterian committee convened by Miss Dorothy Knox, Principal of the Presbyterian Ladies College, Pymble, was seeking to do the same thing. The latter committee's concern was that the Women's College at the University was too focussed on academic achievement and that country girls were disadvantaged in seeking admission.le site proved difficult for both groups, though a number of possible locations were considered including land in Glebe adjacent to St. Barnabas (Broadway) Rectory, a section of St. Paul's College land, the 'IXL' factory on City Road opposite Moore College, and land in Carillon Avenue owned by Moore College. In the end, both the Anglican and the Presbyterian groups failed in gaining a site in relation to Sydney University and turned their attention in the 1960s and 1970s to the University of New South Wales and to Macquarie University. In August 1960, in order better to negotiate and enter into arrangements with the universities and to make submissions for funding, the New University Colleges Council (NUCC) was incorporated as an 'Association Not for Gain Limited by Guarantee'. The signatories - acknowledged as the founding members - were Archbishop Hugh Gough, who had succeeded Howard Mowll and, like him, had been President of CICCU and was the first Chairman of the Inter-Varsity Fellowship of Evangelical Unions; his Coadjutor Bishop, Clive Kerle; Dr Broughton Knox, who had succeeded Marcus Loane as Principal of Moore College on Loane's consecration as a bishop in 1958; and Laurie Lyons, his wife Alison, Ron Winton, and Edwin Judge. Following study at Cambridge University and a research fellowship at Kings College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Edwin Judge took a position in the Department of History at Sydney University in 1956 and resided at St. Andrew's College where he became a tutor in 1958. From 1961 to 1964 he was Warden of University Hall. At the time of NUCC's incorporation, John Hawke was on leave at the University of Chicago, but he is nevertheless regarded as one of the founding members and became Secretary of the Council in 1963 following Laurie Lyons' move to the University of Queensland. The objects of the Council indicated a broad and confident vision to found and establish anywhere within the Commonwealth of Australia men's and women's tertiary residential colleges in connection with the Church of England, especially noting the University of Sydney and the University of New South Wales. They were to provide religious services, tutorial assistance, medical support, transport, recreational and sporting facilities, training and instructions "both theological and secular to students for the sacred ministry", and full board and lodging "under academic supervision and control for students of any race, nationality and colour and
51 Dorothy Knox Time Flies: The Memoirs of Dorothy Knox Rigby Publishers, Sydney, 1982, p.388
irrespective of the religious creed of such students." d as the chief "engine driver" and "ideas man" behind this thrust and vision"prime-mover . (who) dominated NUCC and forced the pace on every issue". the same time, the role of and partnership with Broughton Knox is also recognised as they worked together in persisting with the aims of establishing colleges rather than just halls of residence."they had common ideas and the same sort of level of activity and sharpness of thinking . they understood one another and one another's ways of operating." particular determination that the Company not be under the direct control of the diocese so as to avoid any hindrance in negotiating with the universities and related bodies; at the same time members of the Company were required to sign a declaration of faith that tied them to agreement with the 39 Articles of the Anglican Church. the role of other members was significant with, for example, Edwin Judge arguing strongly - particularly from his St. Andrew's College experience - to have a ban on alcohol in any new college, though he confesses that he didn't think that such a ban, when it was implemented, would last as long as it has! s which would be more liberal at the human level, opening up the world of learning and rising above the "bastardry tradition" that he had found so evident in the existing residential colleges. Much of the detailed work and negotiation in the eventual establishment of new colleges was to be borne by John Hawke as Secretary of NUCC from 1963 to 1978. Menzies, Murray and Munificence:
Undoubtedly the aims and aspirations of the members of the New University Colleges Council were very much facilitated by some highly significant factors in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The proportion of university students in the total Australian population increased from 0.2% in 1939 to just over 0.5% in 1963, with an estimated increase to arage in the 1960s; there was enormous growth in and demand for courses in science and technology; there was an increasing focus on professional training; opportunity for higher education was increasingly seen as a right for all who could qualify, irrespective of social or economic status; and by 1957 some two thousand students had been brought to Australia from countries in Asia under the Colombo Plan. All this led to increasing pressure for places in the universities - and, indeed, for new universities - together with the provision of a range of student support services, including accommodation. With such post-war demand, the federal government under Robert Menzies in 1957 set up a Committee on Australian Universities, chaired by Sir Keith Murray, Chairman of the British University Grants Committee. Out of the Committee's Report came a vast increase in the provision for the capital and recurrent costs of universities in Australia, with the allocation of funds being administered through the Australian Universities Commission. The Murray Report gave strong support to current and to any proposed residential colleges, and noted in
52 Memorandum and Articles of Association of the New University Colleges Council, 9th August 1960, pp. 1-2, New College Archives, Kensington NSW. 53 Interview with Bishop Donald Robinson, Pymble, 21st April 1997 54 Interview with Edwin Judge 55 Interview with Sir Marcus Loane 56 Interview with Mrs Alison Lyons, Kenmore Qld., 27th May 1997 57 Interview with Edwin Judge 58 Ibid 59 W. H. Maze, Address given at a Symposium on ‘The Australian Universities – 1970’ held at UNSW 6-7 December 1960 (figure for 1939 – Commonwealth Statistics); Susan Davies The Martin Committee on the Binary Policy of Higher Education in Australia Ashwood House, Melbourne, 1989 (figure for 1963)
relation to the religious foundations that "practically all the colleges have abandoned any traces of sectarianism and students of all religions and even agnostics are welcomed in all the denominational colleges." further emphasised the prominent role that the colleges played in the social, cultural, sporting and academic life of the universities, and expressed the desire that more students should have the opportunities of receiving the benefit Commonwealth financial assistance for capital projects on a £1 for £1 basis provided by State Governments and other sources, clearly provided a window of opportunity for church and church-related groups to establish new denominational colleges. Prime Minister Menzies, who believed that "affiliated colleges are traditionally a part of the Australian university system and that over the years they have made an outstanding contribution to values and leadership in this country" r John Gorton as Minister-in-Charge of Commonwealth Activities in Education and Research, gave strong support to provision for denominational colleges. In 1963, the Commonwealth Government made it clear that church colleges affiliated with universities would have equal access to funds with residential halls established by the universities themselves. or a new secular college at the University of New England were deferred until any proposed affiliated colleges received equal support and provisionwas expressed that the policy would divert funds from halls established by the University for those who did not wish to live in affiliated church colleges. support of existing and of the establishment of new colleges and halls - denominational or otherwise - was affirmed in the first report of the Australian Universities Commission: ". residence in college or hall promotes the cross-fertilisation of ideas between students in different faculties and with different outlooks . The meeting between mature and immature minds, between those searching for standards of values and those who have found them, is encouraged by such contact . Like the Murray Committee before it, the Commission is convinced that, in the Australian scene, residential colleges and halls of residence are not only desirable but necessary, provided they can cater, with adequate facilities, for a reasonable num Despite concerns expressed by some Vice-Chancellors, such as Robert Madgwick of New England University and Leonard Huxley of the ANU funds to affiliated colleges on an equal basis with funds allocated to their own colleges and halls, proposals by churches to set up new colleges were generally welcomed by university officials as a means of assisting in the much needed provision of accommodation. Some also acknowledged the value that collegiate life - whether in a 'sacred' or a secular setting - brings to the university experience. Louis Matheson, Vice-Chancellor of Monash University, noted that "it is generally
60 Report of the Committee on Australian Universities The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1958, p.54 61 Ibid p.55 62 Robert G. Menzies to Sir Leslie Martin, Australian Archives AA1969/212(16) Folders of Correspondence maintained by Senator John Gorton as Minister for Education & Science 16th October 1963 63 Ibid 64 Ibid 65 Australian National University Archives: A8144, 18.104.22.168, part 1, Affiliation of Halls or Colleges, Standing Committee Minutes 12th October 1962, p.9 66 Report of the Australian Universities Commission on Australian Universities 1958-1963 The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, October 1963, pp. 63-64 67 Australian Archives op.cit. R. G. Madgwick to Mr Ian Sinclair, 11th January 1965; & ANU Archives op.cit. Leonard Huxley to Alex Mitchell, 22nd August 1966
recognised that students educate one another most effectively when they live together as well as work together"nd, at a conference convened by the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee in 1964 on the theme of student residence, Philip Baxter of the University of New South Wales acknowledged the admirable job that had been performed by the small colleges of the traditional collegiate system, while noting that other forms of residence would need to be provided for those who desired a less regimented and costly form of accommodation he wrote: "We look forward to a balanced development of colleges in this University including those operated by outside organisations, presumably in the main religious organisations, and those operated by the University itself. We welcome the Government's decision to give equivalent support to both kinds of college developmenrge Paton of Melbourne University and Sir Fred Schonell of the University of Queensland also acknowledged the value of the Commonwealth's provision for colleges and halls of residence. “Desparate Anglican wrigglings” ! : All this created John Hawke’s "unique opportunity”. It was in the context of a diocese that, in the year following the incorporation of NUCC, also signalled its desire to present a distinctively evangelical witness in its work with university students and to challenge what its Archbishop saw as "soul-destroying philosophies" being taught in the universities - especially at Sydney University.ganised by the Australian Council of the World Council of Churches at Queen's College, Melbourne, in May 1961, delegates from churches, colleges, and university chaplaincies and student Christian organisations came together to discuss the topic of Christian work among students. There was a strong move to bring all Christian work under the one ecumenical umbrella, with, for example, the Reverend Professor C. W. Williams, Master of Queen's College, urging the setting up of a combined Student Christian Council that would plan, organise and co-ordinate student Christian activities on a co-operative basis with the societies and churches willing to participate.om Sydney, including Marcus Loane, Donald Robinson, and Bernard Gook, and Charles Troutman and John Reid of the Inter- Varsity Fellowship, would not have a bar of it. Donald Robinson firmly stated his support for the work of the various student societies which gave choice and opportunity for the exercise of student leadership: "The more societies you have, the more Christians there are, and so much the better." Taylor, an Anglican and Assistant General Secretary of the Australian Council (of Churches), believed that the evangelical societies saw the university as "a neutral institution which has got into evil hands; as a pond from which they as fishers of men must land as many catches as they can; . as a place where the powers of evil are strong, and where every materialistic temptation vigorously assaults the student." Undoubtedly he believed they saw it as Bishop Broughton's "great emporium of false and anti-church views". Certainly Archbishop Hugh Gough saw it that way. At a service at St Andrew's Cathedral in Sydney to mark the opening of the twelfth biennial legal convention of
68 J. A. L. Matheson , in the report of the Conference ‘The Australian Universities – 1970’, p.19 69 P. Baxter, in Report of the Proceedings of the Conference of Australian Universities 1964, The Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee, University of Melbourne, Victoria, 1964, p.63 70 Australian Archives op.cit. J. P. Baxter to Senator Gorton, 13th October 1964 71 Sydney Morning Herald 7th July 1961 72 Australian Council of Churches Archives, The National Library of Australia, MS 7645. 73 Ibid Box 69, Notes taken by David Taylor 74 Ibid
the Law Council of Australia, he spoke of the grave threat posed by the teachings of Marxist Communism and that the same soul-destroying philosophies were being taught in the universities. His comments were clearly taken as an attack upon Professors Anderson and Stout of Sydney University, and they led to a 'field day' in the Sydney press. Sydney's Vice-Chancellor, Stephen Roberts, defended the place of free inquiry in the University and noted the significant presence of the various religious societies.on of Melbourne felt that Archbishop Gough was completely out of touch with university lifeChancellor at the University of New South Wales, noted that most students did not take the courses referred to by the Archbishop.ott, Warden of St Paul's College, believed the comments were grossly uninformedt Babbage, then Dean of Melbourne, felt the Archbishop had been misinformed and noted that any attempt to censure university teaching smacked of "totalitarian tyranny whether political or e University of New South Wales, Professor Anderson declared that "In any university the fight between secularism and religion is intense." Archbishop's sermon and the nature of Sydney evangelicalism which was "rampant, gone to seed, prompting desparate Anglican wrigglings in that Synod". Bishop Clive Kerle, then also Chairman of NUCC, responded that the article was "a deliberate and calculated attack on the leaders, past and present, of the Church of England in the Diocese of Sydney . a planned attempt to destroy confidence in the Church of d in having the Standing Committee of the Diocese place on record its full support for the Archbishop in the stand he had taken.ounding by NUCC of new residential colleges gained an even stronger imperative. An Anglican College at UNSW:
As attempts to obtain a suitable site at Sydney University continued to fail, attention turned to the University of New South Wales. In 1959 the University opened Basser College, then an all-male College, and, although the first secular university college, its Master was a Presbyterian minister, Dr Malcolm Mackay, who later became Minister for the Navy in the McMahon government. As part of its submission to the Australian Universities Commission in 1962, the University noted: "Were the University asked to underline one deficiency beyond all other deficiencies, it would probably select halls of residence". university needed all the help it could get and although it opened two more secular colleges - Goldstein in 1964 and Philip Baxter in 1966 - to form The Kensington Colleges group, the University was very open to approaches from other groups to do the same. Laurie Lyons had first written to the Vice-Chancellor, Professor Baxter, in July 1959, and various meetings ensued to find a suitable site for an Anglican college. While representations had been made on behalf of the Presbyterian and Methodist Churches, only NUCC and the Roman Catholic Church actively continued to seek sites and funds. In 1963 sites for
75 Sydney Morning Herald 19th July 1961 76 Ibid 7th July 1961 77 Daily Telegraph 7th July 1961 78 Sydney Morning Herald 8th July 1961 79 Ibid 10th July 1961 80 Ibid 17th July 1961 81 ‘The Primacy of Graham: Archbishop Gough in the final flowering of Sydney Evangelicalism’, Nation 15th July 1961 82 Minutes of the Standing Committee of the Diocese of Sydney, MB 16, 31st July 1961 83 Ibid Letter of Dr R. R. Winton dated 26th July 1961 84 Submission to the Australian Universities Commission for the 1964-1966 Triennium, March 1962, p.7 (copy in UNSW Library)
both an Anglican and a Roman Catholic College on the south-western corner of the campus were approved by the Unive The proposed Anglican College would cost in the vicinity of $1mCommonwealth and State grants totalled three quarters of the amount, finding the remaining quarter posed a challenge. This would particularly extend the involvement of and approaches to laity, with plans made for a Building Fund Appeal early in 1961. Mr (later Justice) Norman Jenkyn, who became a member of NUCC, recommended the 'National Fund Raising Counsel' (a 'counselling'/fundraising service) to advise on procedures and strategy. Approaches were made to prominent professional/businessmen such as David Lloyd Jones, Judge Lesley Herron (later Chief Justice of NSW), Mick Grace, Sir Frank Packer, Sir Robert Webster (then Deputy, later Chancellor of UNSW), Sir Walter Scott, and, somewhat reminiscent of the foundation days of Sydney University and of St. Paul's College, parishioners and wardens of St. Mark's, Darling Point - Sir Kenneth Street, Mr (later Sir) Vincent Fairfax, and C. H. (Bert) Locke. While most had goodwill towards the College and were happy to give advice when possible, none was able to give time to any on-going commitment.erefore needed to be borrowed, with significant finance coming from funds held on behalf of the Church of England Television Society and from the MLC Insurance Company. To secure both diocesan guarantees for loans and other private backing and support, the NUCC Articles were amended to provide for two members of the Company to be appointed by the Standing Committee. This perhaps added a link that Laurie Lyons and Broughton Knox had originally opposed, but it no doubt gave a certain 'legitimacy' along the lines that Bishop Clive Kerle had indicated to Laurie Lyons in 1960 when he noted that the Archbishop "and other bishops feel that the College at the University of NSW should be brought under Synod . it will help our Appeal and I rather think Sir Kenneth Street would imagine that such a College would be connected with the Diocese officially".f course, was decidedly not in line with the official diocesan - "headquarters" - attitude towards the foundation of St. Paul's College just over a century before! . For a lease to be granted to the Anglican and the Roman Catholic colleges, and for them to be affiliated with the University, Professor Baxter insisted that a foundation clause in the Act of Incorporation of Sydney University that had been written into the Acts establishing most other Australian universities including the University of New South Wales, be written into each lease - that "no religious test shall be administered to any person in order to entitle him to be admitted as a student of the said college or to enjoy any benefit advantage or privilege therthe lease signed at the end of 1966, the task of building the College began. In 1967, following offers of the
85 NUCC Minutes, 16th December 1963 86 Decimal currency was introduced in 1966 87 Vincent Fairfax declined as he was too committed to Burgmann College at the ANU 88 Bishop Kerle to Laurie Lyons, 7th July 1960, New College Archives 89 Much of the credit for steering the process of securing the loans has been given to Dr John Hawke and to Sir Harold Knight, then Deputy Governor and later Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia (and a member of NUCC in the late 1960s and early 1970s). Views expressed in interviews with Dr Keith Watson (first Chair of the New College Board of Management) 24th June 1999, and with Dr John Hawke. Harold Knight believes his role was very much a behind the scenes involvement (interview at Waverton, 22nd July 1999) 90 Affiliated Colleges file, UNSW Archives, 14th February 1967. The lease was signed on behalf of the University by Professor Baxter and the University Registrar, Mr G. L. Macauley, and on behalf of NUCC by Archbishop Loane, Dr A. L. Webb and Dr John Hawke
first Mastership to Dr A. W. Morton and to Dr Stuart Babbage being declinedposition was successfully offered to the Reverend Noel Pollard, then a lecturer and librarian at Moore College. Noel Pollard, a former Vice-President of the Evangelical Union at Sydney University and Precentor of St. Andrew's Cathedral, had recently returned from study at Christ Church, Oxford, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. While it was hoped that a significant donor might come forward after whom the College could be named, it was Noel Pollard who suggested that, with the precedent of New College, Oxford, an interim and rather neutral title could be 'New College'. As there was no donor, so the name remained. New College, housing some two hundred and ten male students, was officially opened by the Governor-General, Sir Paul Hasluck, on 12th October 1969. To assist with the College's early years of development, NUCC appointed a Board of Management under the Chairmanship of Dr Keith Watson of the School of Civil Engineering at the University of New South Wales and a later Chairman of Scripture Union in Australia. Macquarie’s Anglican College:
The New University Colleges Council had also begun to consider the establishment of a College at Macquarie University where, from the start of its planning, land for student residences including colleges had been set aside. Professor Alex Mitchell, Macquarie's first Vice-Chancellor, who, as Deputy Vice-Chancellor at Sydney University had tried to assist NUCC with its consideration of sites for a new college there, was supportive. However, he was determined that there must be no intrusion of dogmatic sectarian doctrine into the life of a secular university, especially one seen as a "fresh start" in university educa college would have its place, but inits place. In 1967 the University Council approved NUCC's proposal to build colleges for two hundred men and two hundred women on two of the sites set aside for student residences. Financial considerations soon led NUCC to decide on only one college that would accommodate both men and women, with support from the Australian Universities Commission being r determined efforts in fundraising for the College at Macquarie were made by a Women's Auxiliary and by a 'Macquarie University Anglican College's Building Fund' established in 1972 under the Patronage of the wife of the Governor of NSW, Lady Cutler, and the Chairmanship of Archbishop Marcus Loane. Again there were terms that there be no religious tests applied for entry, nor for positions on the Board of the College of the nominee of the University Council and a member elected by the residents; nor for the nt donors as well as in recognition of his significant support for church colleges, it was resolved to name the new Anglican college 'Robert Menzies College'. Scottish Presbyterian wit and knowledge of the 'General Confession' of the Anglican 'Book of Common Prayer', accepted "this proposal with much gratitude and more than a little humility since, at my time of life I am more conscious of the things that I Robert Menzies College, under the
91 Stuart Babbage felt it was too soon to leave Atlanta, USA, especially as enormous efforts had been made to secure the position for him there (interview at New College, 19th May 1997). Dr Babbage became the College’s second Master in 1973 92 Bruce Mansfield & Mark Hutchinson Liberality of Opportunity: A History of Macquarie University 1964-1989 Macquarie University in association with Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, NSW, 1992, pp 98-99 93 Interview with Emeritus Professor A. G. Mitchell, Longueville, 5th May 1997 94 NUCC Minutes 10th July 1968 95 Ibid 10th December 1970 96 Ibid 14th June 1972 97 Undated fundraising brochure, Macquarie University Archives, S14/CS
Mastership of the Reverend Dr Alan Colelly opened by Dame Pattie Menzies in May 1973. Anglican and Ecumenical Efforts Elsewhere:
During this time, other clergy and laity made efforts to establish Anglican or inter- denominational colleges at other universities such as the ANU, Monash and New England. Reflecting the ecumenical pattern so keenly proposed at the Consultation in Melbourne in 1961 - a pattern so keenly opposed by Sydney evangelicals - an inter- church committee representative of the Anglican, Presbyterian and Methodist Churches, chaired by the Anglican Bishop of Canberra-Goulburn, Kenneth Clements, was established to set up a College in association with the Australian National University. Ecumenism was also seen as the more realistic approach to raising the necessary funds to supplement the governmennds proved difficult to raise, but Burgmann College, named after Bishop Ernest Burgmann, the former Bishop of Canberra-Goulburn, was opened in 1971. Efforts led by Archbishop Frank Woods of Melbourne to establish an inter- denominational 'Churches' Collegiate Community' at Monash University were not as successful, though combined efforts led to the establishment of a more distinctive and, in the context of an Australian secular university, significant Religious Centre which opened in 1968. Archbishop Woods had managed to secure a loan from the MLC Insurance Company, as had the Sydney Diocese for New College, and land was purchased for a combined churches student village. The proposal was warmly supported by the Monae was clear difficulty in re-paying interest on the loan and in raising funds from other sources. The project was abandoned in May 19 While funds from the legacy of Mr T. R. Fosterllocated to an Anglican 'Church College Scheme' in Armidale in association with the University of New England, as at Monash it proved too difficult to obtain the further resources required in addition to the legacy and to government funds. Bishop Moyes, who was also closely associated with the University and was its Deputy Chancellor from 1960 to 1967, was keen for a denominational college but he was also aware of the financial difficulties in Chairman of NUCC, succeeded Moyes as Bishop of Armidale in 1964 he focused much more on the development of chaplaincy services. of Armidale in 1976, believes that three factors were decisive in the Diocese not moving ahead with an Anglican college: (i) the 1960s was a period of student reaction against authority "and we did not relish mixing the policeman and pastor roles", while at the same time it was becoming popular for students to live out of college; (ii) government funding in the late 1960s and the 1970s declined dramatically; and (iii) there was a time limit on
98 As with Noel Pollard, Alan Cole was a lecturer at Moore College 99 ANU Archives: A8144, 22.214.171.124B Burgmann (Affiliated College) General Matters ‘Burgmann College News’ No.1, April 1968, p.3 100 Louis Matheson to Archbishop Woods, 25th August 1965, Monash University Archives AF/930/COL 101 Churches’ Committee Minutes 24th May 1968, MUA Ibid 102 Mr Foster was the owner of ‘Boolominbah’, the property that became the site of UNE. The property was first offered to the Anglican Diocese of Armidale, but with likely problems of up-keep and servicing, Bishop Moyes suggested the site be offered to the State for a University College. 103 Sir Robert Madgwick ‘John Stoward Moyes – an Appreciation’, in Kelvin Grose & Jean Newall So Great a Heritage New England Girls’ School with Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1990, p.127 104 Bishop Peter Chiswell to Ian Walker 29th June 2001
the bequest of Mr Foster which was to go to The Armidale School if not used for a college. The late 1950s to the mid 1970s was not a long period of opportunity for clergy and laity to be involved in the establishment of Anglican residential colleges in the new Australian universities. Despite the injection of Commonwealth funds, groups outside Sydney either failed to gain the extra resources required or, as at the ANU, succeeded only through ecumenical co-operation. Religion in these universities would be represented more broadly and inclusively; sectarian division and any hint of contravention of terms of affiliation were mollified by the co-operative nature of the relationships between the churches and those of other faiths, and between church and campus. “I should consider myself a layman”: With significant lay initiative and involvement, Anglican residential colleges were established at the University of New South Wales and at Macquarie University. New and Robert Menzies Colleges represented a determination by Sydney conservative evangelicals to have an institutional presence on campuses, somewhat different in ethos to the already established denominational colleges, that would seek to exercise an influence not only on the resident students but on the university and wider communities as well. Influence rather than imposition was key to the motives of the founders. Ron Winton had learned from Mervyn Archdall, whom he succeeded as Editor of the Medical Journal of Australia, that "you don't have to be a so-called 'dyed-in-the-wool' evangelical to have a personal faith"; Laurie Lyons believed that there should be opportunity but not compulsion for hearing the Christian saw the colleges as a base for the long-term goal of engaging the university with evangelical theologyn Judge saw them as places where there would be opportunity to see how the polarity between the classical and biblical traditions worked-out "in a lived community in a way that did not merge them but gave due weight to the significance of academic work, but also . to the significance of the Bible in our culture." y too would see the vital need for co-operation between church and campus, but these colleges were also a product of a history of separation and distinction that marked much of the Sydney diocesan view towards Christian work among students. The New University Colleges Council and its foundation of New and Robert Menzies Colleges in Sydney undoubtedly represented the most distinct evangelical attempt to fashion collegiate residence in a way that would provide for the expression of reformed evangelical faith. In his interview with the Select Committee on the Sydney University in 1859, Dr John Woolley, the Principal Professor, noted that while it was "a very difficult experiment" he hoped the task of uniting "the general secular teaching of a University with independent denominational colleges"olley was, rather ironically, an ordained clergyman of the Church of England who was nevertheless accepted by the Selection Committee on the grounds that he took orders to qualify as a schoolmaster in England and that "if I am so fortunate as to proceed to Sydney, I should consider myself entirely as a laym
105 Ibid 106 Interview with Dr Ron Winton, North Parramatta, 14th August 1997 107 Interview with Laurie Lyons 108 Interview with John Hawke 109 Interview with Edwin Judge 110 John Woolley, Select Committee Minutes of Evidence op.cit. 23rd September 1859, p.23 111 C. Turney et al op.cit. p.69
years later, evangelical lay Anglicans in Sydney would agree with their "lay" brother, Dr Woolley, about the difficulties of uniting independent denominational colleges with secular universities. They certainly would not have agreed with the findings of the Select Committee that the establishment of such affiliated colleges was a "grievous mistake", but they had definite reservations about the working-out of the "experiment". Their concerns were clearly reflected in Harold Fallding's questions as to how well the denominational colleges were fulfilling their function. Despite their success in establishing in Sydney new Anglican colleges in the post World War II era of new Australian universities, they too would find it to be a very difficult and challenging, though albe
112 NUCC was unable to establish further colleges, especially with the withdrawal of government funding in the mid to late 1970s. Robert Menzies College and New College are now separately governed entities, with their boards largely elected by the Standing Committee of the Diocese of Sydney. Under the Masterships of Dr Paul Barnett and Dr Stuart Piggin, Robert Menzies College has fostered the development of the Trinity Chapel, the School of Christian Studies, the Centre for the Study of Australian Christianity, and , though independent, the Macquarie Christian Studies Institute; Dr Bruce Kaye established the Institute for Values Research at New College, which has now become under the Mastership of Professor Trevor Cairney the Centre for Apologetic Scholarship and Education. All have significant lay input and involvement.
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Chapter 8 Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter Outline v Lipids: Compounds composed largely of reduced carbons and exhibiting low water solubility. Lipids may be completely hydrophobic or, if they contain polar groups, amphipathic v Fatty acids: Carboxyl head group and hydrocarbon tail å Typically even number of carbons (14 to 24) å Saturated f