Cdn case study continuum may 23 2007


At the September 9th, 2005 meeting of the CDN it was discussed that a Case Study Continuum be developed of the person with
dementia and their family member from the point of diagnosis through a 10 - 12 year period. This continuum would identify the stress
points in the continuum of care and the corresponding supports and services in the system that need to be in place in order to support
both the person with dementia and their caregiver and promote their quality of life. An evaluation of available supports and services
within the 3 areas (Eastern Counties, Ottawa, Renfrew County) of the Champlain area will be conducted and the results will be shared
with physicians, service providers* and planning groups within the Champlain LHIN as well as more broadly through Dementia
Networks in Ontario (Alzheimer Knowledge Exchange) in order to inform, plan and direct appropriate actions.
*Service providers are defined as non-specialized, general service providers
The following components have been included in the framework:
• Core component: contains assessment criteria as well as transition points for each of the stages of dementia: MCI, Mild, • Physician Issues: provides an overview of family physician and specialty physicians services for each stage of dementia • An “ideal case” followed through the stages of dementia provides a descriptive case study which identifies the key issues, or what needs to happen, as well as the actions that need to be taken. • How the “case study” would change if the person lived alone • Report Card: Report cards have been developed for MCI/Mild; Moderate, Severe, End-of-Life stages. Each area within the Champlain Dementia Network: Renfrew County, Ottawa, Eastern Counties, will assess their own ability to provide the actions that are need to be taken for each stage of dementia. • Appendix: Key definitions and websites are provided for information purposes
Members of Working Group:

Dr. B. Dalziel, Chair
Paula Dutz, family member
Marie McRae, CCAC
Gill Michelin, GPCSO
Nicole Robert, GPCSO
Marg Eisner, ASOC
(Person at home)
Memory loss MMSE Functional loss* Behaviour issues* Interval of need* Informal services Formal services
pADL: personal activities of daily living IADL: instrumental activities of daily living Interval of need: how long a person can be without supervision/assistance *Caregiver stress increases as ADL support needs increase, the interval of need shortens and behavioural issues increase.
(+ memory loss/functional is small; ++ memory/functional loss is more noticeable; +++ memory/functional loss requires more assistance; ++++ memory/functional loss is significant) TRANSITION POINTS
MCI – MILD: moves from no to only mild difficulty; high level IADL to definite loss of some IADL
MILD – MODERATE: develops loss of at least 1 pADL; emerging behavioural issues
MODERATE – SEVERE: loss of most IADL, many pADL; increasing behavioural issues; still “interactional abilities” with others;
SEVERE – PALLIATIVE/END –OF-LIFE: loss of interactional abilities with others and all pADLs; bedridden
S shopping
D dressing
H housework
A accounting
A ambulation
F food preparation
T toilet/transfers
T transportation
H hygiene


1. MCI: screening, early identification, assessment/diagnosis, mentoring/follow-up
2. MILD *(45%): early identification, assessment/diagnosis, drug assessment, treatment,
case management + referral for caregiver education and support/community services 3. MODERATE *(45%): assessment/diagnosis, treatment, management of associated problems, case management, referral for
caregiver education and support/community services/respite, consideration of relocation (RH/LTC) 4. SEVERE *(10%): treatment, management of associated problems, case management referral for community services/respite,
5. PALLIATIVE/END-OF-LIFE: compassionate palliative care
RH: residential home
LTC: long term care
* (%): stage at which diagnosis of dementia currently made

B. SPECIALTY PHYSICIANS: neurologists (N);
geriatric medicine specialists (GM)
geriatric psychiatrists (GP)

1. MCI: diagnosis, monitoring follow-up (N/GM)
2. MILD: assessment/diagnosis, treatment, referral for education/community services (N/GM/GP)
3. MODERATE: assessment/diagnosis, treatment, referral for education/community services (N/GM/GP)
Management of behavioural issues (GM/GP) Consideration of relocation to RH/LTC (GM/GP) 4. SEVERE: treatment, referral for community services, consideration of relocation (LTC) (GM/GP)
• Neuropsychologist involved in assessment/diagnosis primarily in MCI/Mild and MODERATE dementia Assessment/diagnosis:1. AD (≤65), VAD, LBD
Champlain Dementia Network

Case Study Continuum Working Group
An “Ideal” Case Followed Through the Stages of Dementia Ideal Case
Action needed
Key Issues
Mrs. G.C. is a 76 year old married woman with Grade 12 education, she had a mother who developed Alzheimer’s Disease onset age 84, and a medical history including hypertension, hyperlipidemia and osteoporosis. Her medications are Hydrochlorothiazide, Adalat XL, Lipitor, Calcium, Vitamin D, and Fosamax. In the last six months her husband noted that she did seem to be a little bit forgetful having some problems with names, “not quite as sharp” as one year previously, having a little more difficulty planning the bigger family social events and being a little less interested in leisure activities. She was still driving, shopping, cooking, independent in all her IADL’s although she occasionally needed a reminder to take her medication. While at the local Pharmacy her husband noticed that the Pharmacist was offering a 2 minute Dementia Screening Test so he and Mrs. G.C. did the test. He was fine but his wife had difficulties in animal naming (9 in one minute) and clock drawing. He realized that this was a significant issue education such as pharmacists, nurses etc. Her husband was now worried that this was more than normal ageing and did in fact arrange an appointment with the family physician. The family physician tested first with the MMSE on which her score was 25/30. Laboratory testing was negative. Essentially the conceptualization was that Mrs. G.C. was not as “sharp with her memory” as she was 6 months previously but no other areas of cognitive function or functional abilities The Family Physician explained the concepts of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and gave advice about being physically, mentally and socially active. He explained that it could progress to more problems with memory and said that he would see her in one year or earlier if there was greater concern about memory or function. The patient’s hypertension and hyperlipidemia were well controlled and enteric coated aspirin was started One year later there didn’t seem to be any progression of symptoms or functional loss. Her MMSE was now 24/30. The husband and the patient were referred to the First Link Program of the Alzheimer’s Society for ongoing education and support. Two years later the husband was more concerned because she got lost once while out driving the car back from her sister’s home 30 miles away and because he noticed that she was having more trouble with cooking more complicated meals, being more forgetful about medications and occasionally having angry outbursts. He was a little bit worried about leaving her alone for a weekend to go to his big curling bonspiels in the winter. Her MMSE was 20/30. A CT scan was done which showed periventricular white matter changes and two old lacunar infarcts. The family physician made the diagnosis of mild mixed Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia and she was started on anti-dementia drug therapy (cholinesterase inhibitor). Alternatively, the family physician referred patient to specialized diagnostic services. services to achieve realistic wait times in urban and rural areas Her physician did further evaluation which showed poor visual spatial function (clock drawing) and poor performance of Trails A and Trails B. Based on her overall assessment he advised her that she needed to stop Three months later she was seen and she had improved. She was more active, more attune to social situations and conversation and more like her old self. Her MMSE had improved to 22. At this stage she only needed a little bit of cueing for finances and shopping. She was referred to a Day Centre at a Senior’s Centre for increased stimulation and socialization and to provide her husband with some respite. 9 Months later she was about the same, a little more forgetful. The husband had hired a maid to do some of the simple cleaning services through the local community for profit support agency and he also needed to become more involved in cooking simple meals, shopping and finances. One year later she was more forgetful, was unable to cook on the stove but still could use the microwave and do simple cold meals. She needed help services providing education and support for caregiver with laundry and help with shopping. She was independent in her personal ADL’s and only occasionally needed some cueing with respect to clothes selection. She did need help with respect to bathing and the CCAC became involved. Respite was tried for the husband’s attendance to his curling bonspiel and other leisure activities but she became too upset with residential care respite. Her MMSE was 16. She was more emotionally labile, apathetic and became very anxious if left alone. She was also having episodic bouts of agitation and occasionally aggressive behavior. Memantine (Ebixa) was started and there was some improvement in terms of cognition, (MMSE 18), ADLs, agitation and anxiety. One year later her case was considered to be significantly more complex and her care is now being managed by a Dementia Specific Case Manager from CCAC. Her MMSE was 15. He husband was doing all the instrumental activities of daily living. CCAC was providing more services in terms of bathing and personal care. She was occasionally incontinent. Her gait was unsteady and her fall risk was increased such that she needed to use a walker. She needed help with bathing, hygiene and toileting and there was considerable caregiver stress in that she could only be left alone A day program through CCAC (Alzheimer’s Day Away) helped with respect to daytime respite and there was an increase in paid services by the One year later she had a small stroke leaving her with some weakness on the right side. Her incontinence was worse. She developed a tendency towards wandering about the house and once wandered outside and it was decided that she and her husband would re-locate to residential care. This One year later her communication skills were markedly affected. Her mobility was decreased. She began having increasing hallucinations and outreach in community and LTC for on-going management angry outbursts and it was necessary to transfer her to the local Nursing One year later after receiving appropriate end of life care she was found persons with dementia and support for family members An “Ideal” Case Followed Through The Stages of Dementia:
How Would the Case Study Change If the Person with Dementia Lived Alone?
1. If the person with dementia has children or very close friends living in the area:
• Generally persons with mild dementia can have IADL assistance by children or close friends and remain in the home with dosettes and reminders for medications plus, if appropriate, formal health services provided or paid for as long as there are not significant safety issues (driving, cooking, nutrition, wandering etc.) or significant psychobehavioural problems (refusal to accept help, hallucinations, delusions, wandering). In mild dementia the interval of need is typically 12 to 36 hours and can be managed by children or very close friends. • As someone progresses to moderate dementia with the development of personal ADL difficulties (bathing, hygiene, toileting, dressing etc.) the interval of need shortens to 4 to 12 hours and there are increased caregiver demands that generally close friends cannot manage and even children find greater difficulties with provision of services particularly personal ADL assistance. As long as formal services can be provided or purchased, persons with moderate dementia may be able to stay in the home for some period if there are no significant safety or behavioural concerns, but generally planning should begin for residential home or long-term care relocation. As the interval of need shortens below 8 hours and moves towards 4 hours that the person with dementia can be left alone, generally even devoted sons and daughters cannot manage and relocation is necessary. • As someone progresses from mild to moderate dementia there is an increased need for formal services, caregiver education and problem solving, use of respite services, use of Day Programs, and increased attention to caregiver burden and stress. • Generally patients with severe dementia will require long term care and can no longer remain at home unless there is an option to relocate to a son’s or daughter’s home but even then long term care placement will likely soon be required.
2. If the person with dementia has no children or very close friends living in the area:
• In this instance, even persons with only mild dementia and an interval of need of 12-36 hours with no availability of informal services will require increasing formal services. If cooking and nutrition can be managed and there are no safety or behaviour concerns the person can remain at home with increasing formal services. As the person with dementia transitions to the moderate stage of dementia with emerging loss of personal ADL’s, such as bathing and hygiene, formal services provided to the person become increasingly stretched and unless there is the availability of paid services, it is likely that transfer to a Residential Care Home or Long Term Care Institution will be necessary. Champlain Dementia Network
a = working well; b = under-utilized; c = long waiting lists; d = in some areas A Framework is developed for a public awareness campaign: risk factors; warning signs; early recognition Screening Program on early recognition is developed Enhanced diagnostic and treatment services to achieve realistic wait times in urban and rural areas is in place. Electronic patient record begun Dementia Education for Family Physicians Dementia education framework in place for all service provider staff First Link Program: Alzheimer Society Monitoring and assessment by Family Physician Referral to senior’s centre for social activities Enhanced specialized diagnostic and treatment services to achieve realistic wait times in urban and rural areas Education for Family Physicians for appropriate driving assessment and of on-road assessment services Appropriate Day Program Respite available for caregivers of persons with mild to moderate dementia with realistic wait times in urban and rural areas Referral to community support agency for assistance with IADL’s Guest House respite for caregivers of persons with mild to moderate dementia Education regarding appropriate re-location to residential care Transportation is available for both the person with dementia and for the family caregiver


Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI):
Memory-wise, the person is not as “sharp” as they were one year previously but there is no effect on other cognitive functions and no impairment of instrumental
activities of daily living (IADL: e.g. finances, shopping, cooking, etc.). There may be some mild behavioural complaints (e.g. anxiety, loss of initiative,
irritability etc.) The approach is to monitor for change every 6 to 12 months as there is an approximately 10% risk per year of progression to Dementia.
Mild Dementia (45% at the time of diagnosis):
Fulfils the criteria of Dementia (change in memory and at least one other cognitive function (e.g. language, visual spatial, judgement, executive function) associated with an impact on IADL’s and possibly early psychobehavioural problems but these changes are mild. The interval of need is generally 12 hours to 3 days and there is some need for informal help and minimal formal services. If the person is living at home alone without any informal help there may need to be consideration for residential care if there are significant functional or safety issues Champlain Dementia Network
a = working well; b = under-utilized; c = long waiting lists; d = in some areas Continuing education/support from the Alzheimer’s Society Respite available : in-home, day program and Guest House respite for mild to moderate dementia Specialized outreach/outpatient assessment services: geriatric medicine, geriatric psychiatry Referral to Psychogeriatric Community Services Range of programs and services re: education and support available for caregiver (Alzheimer Society) Appropriate quantity of community supports available Appropriate mix of community supports available Education for person with dementia and family caregiver regarding appropriate re-location to residential care Contingency planning and crisis prevention and management in place Appropriate Day Programs for moderate dementia with realistic wait times in urban and rural areas Incentive based placement coordination system in place Education and support for person and family caregiver replacement process (Partnership in Transitional Care Program) Transportation is available for both the person with dementia and for the family caregiver

Moderate (45% at the time of diagnosis):
The major change is that at least one personal activity of daily living (PADL) is affected (e.g. dressing, toileting, bathing, hygiene,
ambulation etc.). Behavioural problems may be more significant including delusions, hallucinations and aggressive behaviour. The
interval of need is typically 4 to 12 hours and there is a need for both significant informal and/or formal services for support and there
may be a consideration of need to relocate to a supervised setting (Retirement Home or Long Term Care).
Champlain Dementia Network
a = working well; b = under-utilized; c = long waiting lists; d = in some areas Specialized geriatric psychiatry outreach in community and LTC for on-going management and crisis intervention Transportation is available for the family caregiver Education and support is available for family member Staff in LTC receive a coordinated menu of learning opportunities about needs of resident with dementia Physicians within LTC receive dementia education Appropriate quantity and mix of community supports available for those still living at home
Severe (10% at the time of diagnosis):
There is now significant impairment in PADL, IADL’s are completely lost, memory loss is severe, behavioural problems may become
more severe, and generally the person is in a supervised setting (Retirement Home/Long Term Care) or living with a devoted spouse.
The interval of need is now 0-4 hours and respite care, formal services, and support of the caregiver is critical if the person with
dementia is still at home.
Champlain Dementia Network
a = working well; b = under-utilized; c = long waiting lists; d = in some areas Enhanced service provision for palliative care stage of dementia available in the community For family caregiver in the community, appropriate quantity and mix of community supports available For family caregiver in the community, respite is available and encouraged Enhanced end-of-life care available for persons living in LTC Homes Education and support available for the family members Transportation is available for the family caregiver
Palliative/End of Life:
The person is now completely dependent in PADL, generally bed bound, needing feeding and generally in a Long Term Care setting
with life expectancy less than 3 months – 6 months. The need is for compassionate terminal care.
Champlain Dementia Network
Case Study Continuum Working Group

Community Care Access Centre (CCAC): coordinates professional health and treatment programs for adults and children in need of
assistance in their homes. Services include nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and other related disciplines.
They also provide personal support services to the frail elderly and those who are disabled. The CCAC manages the application
process and waitlists for government supported long term care homes and day programs.;;
Community Support Services: The Ottawa Community Support Coalition (OCSC) consists of 19 organizations mandated to
provide home-based community support services to seniors and adults with physical disabilities. These agencies provide a wide
range of community support services designed to meet the needs of individuals living in their community. The range of services
offered by these agencies includes Meals on Wheels, Diners Club, Transportation, Friendly Home Visiting, Caregiver Support,
Foot Care and Homemaking.; Eastern Counties: 1-800-267-1741; Renfrew County:
Day Away Program (DAP): programs that provide stimulation and socialization to seniors in the community and to relieve family
caregivers. There are specific Alzheimer and related dementias’ Day Programs available.

Diagnosis/Treatment/Assessment Services:
multidisciplinary assessment services for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease and
related dementias as well as management and treatment of associated issues such as functional dependency, safety, caregiver stress,
education needs, community services and future planning.
First Link Program: links individuals newly diagnosed with dementia and their families to a community of learning, services and
support which is continued throughout the progression of the disease. Eastern Counties: 613-932-4914; Renfrew County: 613-732-
1159; Ottawa: 613-523-4004
Guest House Respite: a 12 bedroom bungalow located on the campus of the Perley and Rideau Veterans Health Centre. It has been
planned and designed to create a safe, homelike and supportive environment for individuals in the early to mid-stage of dementia.
Guests can stay 24 hours a day, with emergency, overnight, and flexible accommodation available. Initial assessment is required
through the CCAC. Ottawa: 613-745-5525
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL): activities related to independent living and include preparing meals, managing
money, shopping for groceries or personal items, performing light or heavy housework, transportation, and using a telephone.

Personal Activities of Daily Living (pADL):
routine activities that people tend to do everyday. There are six basic pADL’s: eating,
bathing, dressing, toileting, and transferring (walking). An individual’s ability to perform pADL’s determines the type of care that the
individual needs.
Respite: infrequent and temporary substitute care which can provide relief for caring for someone at home. Respite also will provide
socialization and activities for the person with dementia. Types of respite include: in-home, Day Programs, in-facility.

Seniors’ Centres:
provide opportunities for seniors to socialize with other seniors and to participate in many activities and programs
such as arts and crafts, games, exercises, fitness, travel, choir, history, languages, discussion groups, guest speakers, lunches, and
many other interests.
Specialized outreach/assessment services: an inter-disciplinary approach to case management which includes assessment,
counseling, referrals to other agencies, educational resources, psychotherapy for persons with Alzheimer Disease and related
dementias. Geriatric Psychiatry Community Services: Eastern Counties (GPCSO): 613-932-9940; Renfrew County: 613-735-6500;
Ottawa: 613-562-9777. Royal Ottawa Hospital:613-722-6521 Ex. 6507


Geschäftsbrief für ct berg- und tunnelbausysteme

Sewer repair CarboLith HL Minova CarboTech GmbH Am Technologiepark 1 Uses CarboLith HL is a non-foaming, elasticised two-component resin having good adhesion, for impregnating inliners during sewer rehabilitation work, in particular of service lines. CarboLith HL o impregnates polyester mats well o cures excellently in thin layers, without heating or UV radiat

Microsoft word - kollégiumehyajánl.doc


Copyright © 2010-2014 Metabolize Drugs Pdf