kufa university
College of Nursing
second year student
Ass. Lect :- Hisham Qassem M.
Lecture No :-11
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Menopause, the period in a woman’s life during which the menstrual cycle
ceases, is likely to occur between ages 45 and 55.
The ovaries are no longer responsive to the gonadotropic hormones produced
by the anterior pituitary, and the ovaries no longer secrete estrogen or
physical symptoms, such as “hot flashes” (caused by circulatory
irregularities), dizziness, headaches, insomnia, sleepiness, and depression.

Milk production by the breasts, called lactation, is regulated by the
interactions of four hormones :-
Estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ovaries and placenta; they
stimulate proliferation of breast tissue .

- Prolactin and oxytocin are produced by the pituitary :-
Prolactin causes milk secretion after the breasts have been stimulated by
estrogen and progesterone
Oxytocin causes contraction of specialized cells, which help relasing milk
during breast-feeding
Breast-feeding stimulates Prolactin secretion; the resulting high prolactin level
causes changes in the mother's menstrual cycle .

The prevention of pregnancy is termed contraception ('against conception')
and can be accomplished by 3 number of means, such as intrauterine
devices_(UIDs), spermicidal agents, birth control pills, or shields such as a
Sterilisation of the male can be accomplished through a vasectomy. The
vas deferens are the tubes that carry the sperm into the urethra, and tying
off these tubes prevents the sperm from travelling out of the penis during
sexual intercourse. Females may be sterilised via tubal ligation. The
Fallopian tubes are cut or tied shut preventing the egg from travelling from
the ovary to the uterus.
Clinical Disorders Related to Female Reproductive System :-
Amenorrhea-:-is the absence of menstruation. Primary amenorrhea is the
failure to have menstruation by the age al would have been. It result in
failure of secondary sex characters to develop. Certain endocrine
disorders may result it.
Secondary amenorrhea is the stoppage of menstruation who previously
had normal menstruation. Chronic sickness, fatigue poor nutrition and
emotional stress may cause secondary amenorrhea .
2- Dysmenorrhoea :- is difficult menstruation usually resulting m painful

3- Vaginitis :- is ihe inflammation of the vagina that is usually caused
by a micro-organism such as bacteria or yeast. Vaginitis is often not a
result of sexually transmuted diseases.
4- Mastitis :- is inflammation of the breast, which can occur at any age
and in both male and females, but is usually associated with females.
5- Breast cancer :- is one of the leading causes of death in woman between
the ages of 32 and 52
, Men can also get breast cancer but at a lower rate,
and it was estimated that there were about 1000 cases of male breast cancer
in 2003 compared to 182,000 female cases. Cancer of the breast may require
a full or partial mastectomy but the earlier detected, the better chance to
cure .


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B a c t e r i a l k i d n e y d i s e a s e ( R e n i b a c t e r i u m s a l m o n i n a r u m ) • Many fish species, and even invertebrates, may be hosts of the pathogen without clinical manifestation. CLASSIFICATION OF THE CAUSATIVE AGENT Eubacteria, family Micrococcaceae, genus OCCURRENCE Occurs in feral and farmed populations of salmonids in Renibacterium salmonina

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