CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL INFORMATION Name and Title:
Professor of Pharmacy and Medicine Chairman, Department of Pharmacy,
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutics
(804) 828-8359 (FAX); e-mail: email@example.com
Residency in hospital pharmacy, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, July 1972 - July 1973. Sabbatical with Dr. Richard Wenzel, Chair, VCU Department of Internal Medicine. 2000-2001
Department of Pharmacy VCU School of Pharmacy
and Graduate Programs Department of Pharmacy VCU School of Pharmacy
Medical College of Virginia Richmond, Virginia
Medical College of Virginia Richmond, Virginia
Pharmacy Department University Hospital University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan
College of Pharmacy University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan
Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of America:
Member, American Society for Microbiology
Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (Founding member)
American College of Clinical Pharmacy (Founding member)
Society for Health Care Epidemiology of America (SHEA)
President , Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (1994-1995)
Contributing Editor, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1991-2005) Editorial Board, Pharmacotherapy, 1982 – 2006.
Preceptor for Fellowships in Infectious Diseases:
¾ 1982-83 (Dr. Teresa Tartaglione*), ¾ 1983-1985 (Dr. Patricia Colaizzi), ¾ 1985-87 (Dr. Dan Healy*), ¾ 1987-1989 (Dr. Jan Sahai*), ¾ 1990-1992 (Dr. Debra Israel), ¾ 1991-1993 (Dr. Greg Gillum), ¾ 1997-1999 (Dr. Doug Slain), ¾ 1999-2001(Dr. Roula Qaqish), ¾ 2001-2003 (Dr. Chris Johnson) ¾ 2004 – 2005 (Dr. Conan MacDougall)
*Sponsored by the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists Foundation
Bristol Award (for academic excellence during doctoral studies at University of Michigan), 1974
Rho Chi - (Academic honorary in Pharmacy), 1970-Present
MAJOR NATIONAL COMMITTEES
Continuing Education Committee Member, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, 2005 – present Chair, AACP Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Practice Scholarship/Research Faculty Development Task Force . ad hoc, July 2006 – July 2007 Gave the committee report at the Pharmacy Practice Section Business meeting, AACP 2007 Annual Meeting, Orlando, Fl. July 16, 2007 and gave an update at
the ASHP 2007 annual meeting, Las Vegas, NV, and will cahir a session “Scholarship and practice faculty” at the AACP annual meeting, Chicago, IL. July 2008. Member, Program Committee, Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). 1999-2005. Represented Category A (Antibiotic Pharmacology/Pharmaocdynamics).
TEACHING EXPERIENCE (Summary) Since coming to VCU in 1976 I have been responsible for coordinating and teaching many courses, including the following topic areas:
1. From ~ 1978 through 1998 I coordinated and taught most of the material in the
required course, Drug Literature Evaluation. This included lectures in biostatistics, and clinical study design. This course has been a 3 or 4 semester hour course.
2. Since 1976 asd until becoming Department Chiar in 2003 I was responsible for
coordinating and teaching most of the Infectious Diseases Module in both the undergraduate program and the Pharm.D. programs. This is a requirement of the program, and usually consists of ~20 lectures/year (fellows, and residents have also given many of these lectures over the years)
3. Most years I have offered an elective in Infectious Diseases that has been taken
by 10 – 40 students per year. My fellows have contributed to this course as well. Since 2003 I have only given an occasional lecture.
4. I taught most of the material regarding “Metabolic Drug-Drug interactions” and
“Antibiotic Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics” in the pharmacokinetics courses over the years through 2004.
SIGNIFICANT SCHOLARLY AND RESEARCH EXPERIENCE Research Projects and Funding*: Note: From 1980 – 1995 I am unable to find a record of the funding amounts and have indicated as such by “?”.
Economic Impact of Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea in Patients Within the
Bacterial Resistance in the UHC Network grants committee.
“Diversity of Antibiotic Use and Nosocomial Resistance: An Intervention
Bayer Pharmaceuticals, U.S. Phase 4
“Diversity of Antibiotic Use and Nosocomial Resistance: An Intervention
Fellowship support for Dr. Chris Johnson,
Fellowship support for Dr. Chris Johnson,
A mass balance study to investigate the metabolic disposition of a single oral
healthy male subjects* Pharmacokinetic Interaction between
Amprenavir and clarithromycin in healthy
male volunteers* Pharmacokinetic Interaction between
in healthy male volunteers A mass balance study to investigate the metabolic disposition of a single oral dose
of radio-labeled [C14]-abacavir in healthy
male subjects* Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Amprenavir and ketoconazole in healthy
male volunteers* Drug-drug interaction between ddi and
clarithromycin in HIV-positive adults. Azithromycin-rifabutin interaction in HIV-
positive subjects (multicenter study of eh
DATRI group) Effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of ddI in HIV-positive
subjects Effects of ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics nd pharmacodynamics
of warfarin Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of multiple-dose
ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in normal volunteers. Interaction between lomefloxacin and
caffeine in normal volunteers. Comparison of vancomycin- and teicoplanin-induced histamine release and Marion Merrell Dow, 1989
"red man" syndrome. Antimicrobial Ag and Chemother
In vitro effect of fluoroquinolones on theophylline metabolism in human liver
microsomes. Pharmacokinetic interaction between ciprofloxacin and caffeine in normal
volunteers, Single-dose pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime and cefamandole in healthy
subjects. Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of mezlocillin following two dosage
schedules. Comparative multiple dose pharmacokinetics of azlocillin and
piperacillin. Penetration of moxalactam into bone and
atrial appendage Tobramycin and gentamicin penetration in to burn wound eschar and microbiological
effects * Dr. Polk is the PI on all grants unless otherwise indicated) BIBLIOGRAPHY: Abstracts of Current Research (abstract presented since 2000 that have not been published).
1. Inocencio TJ, Robles JR, Kansal S, Polk RE. Predicting antibiotic resistance in
nosocomially acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia. Annual meeting, ACCP, Denver, CO. October 2007. (student abstrqact, incomplete report)
2. Inocencio TJ, Harpe SE, Pakyz AL, Oinonen M, Polk RER. Characterization of
continued use of antimicrobial therapy post-diagnosis of Clostridium difficille Associated Diarrhea (CDAD). Annual meeting, ACCP, Denver, CO. October 2007.
3. A. L. Pakyz, J. P. Powell, M. Oinonen, R. Polk; Impact of Carbapenem (CBP)
Restriction on CBP Use and CBP Resistant P. aeruginosa (CBPRPa)in 17 U.S. Hospitals. Poster presentation in session, Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negatives, at the 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). Chicago, IL, September 18, 2007.
4. A. L. Pakyz, J. P. Powell, M. Oinonen, R. E. Polk; Conformity to SHEA/IDSA
Guidelines for Antimicrobial (AM) Stewardship Programs (ASPs) in 19 U.S. Academic Health Centers. Poster presentation in session, Antimicrobial Use, Management Programs and Associated Resistance Patterns, at the 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). Chicago, IL, September 20, 2007.
5. J. Powell, A. Pakyz, M. Oinonen, R. Polk. Antibiotic Heterogeneity in US
Hospitals is Stable over Time,. Poster presentation in session, Antimicrobial Use, Management Programs and Associated Resistance Patterns, at 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). Chicago, IL, September 20, 2007.
6. Leftwich R, Pakyz A, Oinonen M,. Polk. "Broad-spectrum antibacterial use in 22
US university teaching hospitals from 2002-2005." for presentation at the ACCP Annual Meeting (October 26–29, 2006), in St. Louis, MO.
7. Leftwich R, Pakyz A, Oinonen M, Polk. "Vancomycin use and proportion of
methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus increase over a four year period." presentation at the ACCP Annual Meeting (October 26–29, 2006) in St. Louis, MO.
8. Pakyz A, Polk RE, MacDougall C. Antimicrobial (AM) Prescribing in US
Academic Health Centers Over a Three-year Period. 46th (2006) Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), San Francisco, CA. Abstract K-1418
9. Polk ER, Pakyz A, MacDougall. Diversity of Aggregate Antibacterial Drug Use in
US Teaching Hospitals over Three Years and Rates and Proportions of Resistance for MRSA and Quinlone-resistant P. aeruginosa. 46th (2006) Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). San Francisco, CA. Abstract K-1409
10. Schmiedescamp M, Pakyz A, Oinnen M, Polk R. Validation of Administrative
Claims Data to Identify Nosocomial Clostridium difficile-Associated Disease and Antimicrobial Exposure (AE). 46th (2006) Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). San Francisco, CA. Abstract K-1014.
11. Pakyz A, Letcavage J, Mahoney A, Polk R. Antimicrobial Use in Pediatric
Patients in 130 United States Hospitals. . In Program and abstracts of the 45th ICAAC, September 24th, 2005, New Orleans, LA. Abstract K-2093
12. MacDougall , Letcavage J, Mahoney A, Polk R. Characteristics and Predictors
of Antifungal (Afx) Drug Use in Adults in 130 United States Hospitals. In Program and abstracts of the 45th ICAAC, September 21st, 2005. New Orleans, LA. Abstract K-540.
13. MacDougall , Letcavage J, Mahoney A, Polk R. Characteristics and Predictors
of Adult Antibacterial (Abx) Use in 130 United States Hospitals. In Program and abstracts of the 45th ICAAC, September 24th, 2005. New Orleans, LA. Abstract K-20924
14. Phillips S, Polk RE, Oinonen M. Pharmacoepidemiology of colistin use in
university teaching hospitqals. Program and abstracts of the 15th annual meeting
of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), April 10, 2005. Los Angeles, CA. Abstract 56.08
15. MacDougall C., Powell P., Johnson C., Edmond M., Polk RE. Logitudinal analysis
of the relationship between fluoroqunolone use and resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in 24 US Hospitals, 1999 – 2003. Program and abstracts of the 15th annual meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), April 10, 2005. Los Angeles, CA. Abstract 156.108
16. MacDougall C., Oinonen M., Polk RE. Antibacterial exposure in pediatric pateints
in 33 united States teaching hospitals. Program and abstracts of the 15th annual meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), April 10, 2005. Los Angeles, CA. Abstract 319.114
17. Polk, RE, Oinonen M, Keroack M. Characteristics and Predictors of Antibacterial
Drug Use at 32 University Teaching Hospitals. In Program and abstracts of the 44th ICAAC. Washington, DC. Abstract O-1615, November 1, 2004.
18. Polk RE. Diversity of Hospital Antibacterial Use and Bacterial Resistance. . In
Program and abstracts of the 44th ICAAC. Washington, DC., October 30,2004. Abstract K-337.
19. Johnson CK, Polk RE, Moore M. What is the Incidence of Antibiotic Exposure in
US Hospitals? . In Program and abstracts of the 44th ICAAC. Washington, DC., October 30,2004. Abstract K-1562.
20. Polk RE, Taylor M, Johnson CK. Hospital Fluoroquinolone (FQ) Use Correlates
to Prevalence of Carbapenem-Resistant P. aeruginosa (CarRPa). In Program and abstracts of the 44th ICAAC. Washington, DC., November 1,2004 Abstract K-1562
21. Polk RE, Johnson C, Davis S. No Association Between Changes in Hospital
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) Use and Changes in Rates of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant P. aeruginosa (FQRPa). 43rd Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Sept. 16, 2003. Chicago Il. Abstract K-1427.
22. Polk RE, Johnson C. Characterization of Antipseudomonal Drug Use in U.S.
Hospitals. 43rd Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Sept. 16, 2003. Chicago Il. Abstract K-1421.
23. Johnson C, Polk RE. Antimicrobial use in U.S. hospitals and methicillin-resistant
Staphyloccus aureus. 43rd ICAAC, Sept. 16, 2003. Chicago Il. Abstract K-1399.
24. The Relationship of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPa) and
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) Exposure, Measured by DDD/1000PD and Grams/1000PD, in U.S. Hospitals. C. Johnson, R. Polk, R. Qaqish, D. McClish,
M. Edmond, R. Wenzel. 12th Annual Meeting of SHEA (Society of Health Care Epidemiology of America). Salt Lake City, UT. 2002
25. Reasons for Variability in Hospital Antibiotic Use: From the SCOPE-MMIT
Network. R. Polk, C. Johnson, R. Qaqish, D. McClish, M. Edmond, R. Wenzel. 12th Annual Meeting of SHEA (Society of Health Care Epidemiology of America). Salt Lake City, UT. 2002
26. R E Polk, Johnson CK, Nichols M. "Open" and "Closed" Hospital Formularies: In
need of a New Definition. 42nd Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Diego, CA. 2002. Abst. O-1003
27. Polk RE, Hospitals with "Open" Antibiotic Formularies may be Associated with
Lower Rates of Bacterial Resistance: From the SCOPE-MMIT Antimicrobial Surveillance Network. 42nd Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Diego, CA. 2002. K-1352
28. C K Johnson, Polk, RE, Edmond M, Wenzel R. . Trends in Antimicrobial Use
(AU) from 1999 to 2001 in 36 U.S. Hospitals: A SCOPE-MMIT Report. Pharmacoeconomics: Measuring and Managing Antibiotic 42nd Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Diego, CA. 2002. Abst. K-1005.
29. C K Johnson, Tomes H, Polk RE, . Community Fluoroquinolone (FQ) use and its
Relationship to Hospital Rates of Ciprofloxacin Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPa): A SCOPE-MMIT Report. 42nd Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Diego, CA. 2002. Abst. K-1088
30. Christopher K Johnson, Ron Polk, Michael Edmond, Richard Wenzel.
Association Between Fluoroquinolone (FQ) Use And Prevalence Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)In U.S. Hospitals: A Scope-MMIT Report. 40th Annual Meeting, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Chicago, Il. 2002. Abst. 399.
31. Polk RE, Johnson CK, Edmond M, Wenzel R. Trends in Fluoroquinolone
prescribing in 35 U.S. Hospitals and resistance for Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A SCOPE MMIT Report. 41st Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago Il. December 2001, Abst. UL-1.
32. R.E. Polk. Antibiotic Use and Resistance in US Hospitals: MMIT/SCOPE
Network., in: Symposium: Epidemiology of Antibiotic Use and Resistance. Abstracts of the 40th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September 2000, Abstract: 630.
1. Robles, JR, Youmans S, Byrd D, Polk E. Barriers to Scholarship and Research
among Pharmacy Practice Faculty: Report from the Scholarship/Research Faculty Development Task Force, Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Practice. Am J Pharma Ed (submitted).
2. Amy L. Pakyz, Conan MacDougall, Michael Oinonen, Ronald E. Polk, Adult
Antibacterial Use in U.S. Academic Health Centers: 2002 to 2005: Implications for Antibacterial Resistance and Antibacterial Stewardship (Submitted)
3. Pakyz A, Polk RE. "Assessment of Diversity (or Heterogeneity) of Antibiotic Use
4. MacDougall, C., Polk RE. Antibacterial Prescribing in 130 U.S. Hospitals:
Variability of Use and Risk-Adjustment Modeling for Inter-hospital Benchmarking. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (in press)
5. Lautenbach E. Polk RE. Resistant gram-negative bacilli: A neglected healthcare
crisis? Am J HealthSystems Pharmacy). 2007 (supplement 14; 64:S3-21.)
6. Polk RE, Letcavage J, Mahoney A, MacDougall C. Adult Antibiotic Usage in 131
US hospitals: Comparison of Defined Daily Dose (DDD) to Duration of Therapy (DOT)/1000 patient days (PD). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2007;44:664-70.
a. Polk RE. “Reply to Dalton”. Letter to the editor, Clinical Infectious
7. Pakyz A, Tran K, Oininen, M, Polk E. Variability in Hospital-wide Antibiogram
Methodology Among 29 University Teaching Hospitals. Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists Newsletter, Summer 2006. (Companion paper is in press, Pharmacotherapy)
8. MacDougall C, Polk RE. Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Health Care
Systems. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2005 18: 638-656.
9. Conan MacDougall, J. Patrick Powell, Christopher K. Johnson, Michael B.
Edmond, Ronald E. Polk. Hospital and community fluoroquinolone use and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in 17 U.S. hospitals. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41: 435-40. (August 15).
10. MacDougall C, Harpe SE, Powell JP, Johnson CK, Edmond MB, Polk RE.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and fluoroquinolone use. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2005 Aug [date cited]. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no08/05-0116.htm
11. R. Polk, C. Johnson, D. McClish, R. Wenzel, M. Edmond. Predicting Hospital
Rates of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa From Fluoroquinolone Use in U.S. Hospitals and Their Surrounding Communities. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004; 39:487-503.
12. P. Cook, P. Catrou, J. Christie, P. Young and R. Polk. Reduction in broad-
spectrum antimicrobial use associated with no improvement in hospital antibiogram.; Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2004; 53: 853-859.
13. Sadler BM, Chittick GE, Polk RE, Slain D, Kerkering TM, Studenberg SD, Lou Y,
Moore KHP, Wooley JL, Stein DS. Metabolic disposition and pharmacokinetics of [C14]-amprenavir, a human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor, administered in a single oral dose to healthy male subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;41(4):386-96.
14. Hafner R, Bethel J, Standiford HC, Follansbee S, Cohn DL, Polk RE, Mole L,
Raasch R, Kumar P, Mushatt D, Drusano G. Tolerance and pharmacokinetic interactions of rifabutin and azithromycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 May;45(5):1572-7.
15. DF. Brophy, DS.Israel, A Pastor,C Gillotin, G Chittick, WT. Symonds, Yu L, BM.
Sadler,RE. Polk. Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Amprenavir and Clarithromycin Following Their Co-Administration to Healthy Male Volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemo 44:978-984, 2000
16. R.E. Polk, DF. Brophy , D S. Israel, R Patron, B M. Sadler, G E. Chittick,
WT. Symonds, W Gouldin, Yu L, D Kristoff, D.S. Stein. Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Amprenavir and Rifabutin and Rifampin in Healthy Males. Antimicrob Agents Chemo 45:502-508, 2001
17. Monroe S, Polk RE. Antimicrobial drug use and bacterial resistance. Current
18. Slain D, Pakyz A, Israel D, Monroe S, Polk RE. Variability in Activity of Hepatic
CYP3A4 in Patients Infected with HIV. Pharmacotherapy, 20:898-907, 2000.
19. James A. McDowell, Gregory E. Chittick, Joshua R. Ravitch, Ronald E. Polk,
Thomas M. Kerkering, and Daniel S. Stein. Pharmacokinetics of [14C]-abacavir, an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor, following a single, oral dose in HIV-1 infected adults: A mass balance study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2855-61, 1999.
20. R E. Polk, M A. Crouch, D S. Israel , A Pastor, B M. Sadler, G E. Chittick,
William T. Symonds, Winston Gouldin, Yu Lou . Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Ketoconazole and Amprenavir After Single Dose Administration to Healthy Male Subjects. Pharmacotherapy 19:1378-1384, 1999.
21. Polk RE. Optimal use of modern antibiotics: Emerging trends. Clinical Infectious
22. Van Cleef G, Fisher E, Polk RE. Drug interaction potential when HIV+ patients
receive protease inhibitors. Pharmacotherapy 1997; 17: 774-778.
23. Gillum J Gregory, Sessler J, Bruzzese V, Israel D, Polk RE. Induction of
theophylline clearance by rifampin and rifabutin in healthy male volunteers., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1996; 40:1866-1869.
24. Gillum JG, Israel D, Scott B, Climo M, Polk RE. Effect of combination of
ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin on the metabolism of theophylline in healthy volunteers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1996; 40: 1715-1716.
25. Polk RE. The unexamined life: antibiotic serum level monitoring and clinical
pharmacy. J Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy 1995; 1(4) :3-24.
26. Gillum J G, Bruzzese V, Israel D, Kaplowitz L, Polk RE. Effect of clarithromycin
on the pharmacokinetics of didanosine in persons seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996: 22:716-718
27. Israel D, Polk R, Sintek CD, Swaim WR, Stotka J., et al. The effect of
ciprofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1996;22:: 251-256.
28. Polk RE. Rational approach to investigate antimicrobial drug-drug interactions. J
Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy 1995; 1: 45-57.
29. Bruzzese V, Gillum JG, Israel D, Johnson G, Kaplowitz L, Polk RE. Effect of
fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of didanosine in persons seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrob Ag Chemother 39: 1050-1053, 1995
30. Polk R.E., Fluoroquinolones: Drug Interactions and Patient Education. Infectious
Diseases in Clinical Practice 3 (supplement 3): S185-S189, 1994.
31. Gillum G., Israel D., Polk, RE.: Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with
antimicrobials. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 25:450-482, 1993
32. Polk R. E., Israel D., Wang J., Venitz J., Miller J., and J. Stotka. Vancomycin skin
tests and prediction of "Red Man" Syndrome in normal volunteers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 37:2139-2143, 1993
33. Israel D., Gillum G., Turik M., Harvey K,Ford J, Dalton H., Towle M, Echols R,
Heller AH, and Polk RE. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of multiple-dose ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in normal volunteers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 37:2193-2199, 1993.
34. Sahai J., Healy DP, Stotka J., Polk RE.: The influence of chronic administration
of calcium carbonate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin. Br J Clin Pharmacol.35:302-304, 1993
35. Healy DP., Schoenle JR, Stotka J, Polk RE.: Lack of interaction between
lomefloxacin and caffeine in normal volunteers. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 35:660-664, 1991.
36. Polk, R.E.: Anaphylactoid reactions to glycopeptide antibiotics. J. Antimicrobial
37. Israel, D., Polk, R.E. Recently described adverse reactions to antimicrobials.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: 3(6):773-779, 1990.
38. Sahai J.V.S., Healy D.P., Shelton M., Miller, J., Polk R.E.,: Comparison of
vancomycin- and teicoplanin-induced histamine release and "red man" syndrome. Antimicrobial Ag and Chemother 34:765-769, 1990.
39. Healy D.P., Sahai J.V., Polk R.E.: Effect of one and two hour infusions of
vancomycin on histamine release and red-man syndrome. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 34:550-554, 1990.
40. Sarkar M., Polk R., Guzellian P., Hunt C., Karnes T.: In vitro effect of
fluoroquinolones on theophylline metabolism in human liver microsomes. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemo., 34:594-599, 1990.
41. Polk R.E.: Commentary on "Meta-Analysis," Pharmacotherapy 9:282-283, 1989.
42. Polk R.E.: Drug-drug interactions with ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones.
Am. J. Med., 89(5A):765-815, 1989 (Nov. 30).
43. Polk R.E., Healy D.P., Sahai, J.V.S. Effect of iron and multivitamins with zinc on
absorption of ciprofloxacin in normal volunteers, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 33:1841-1844, 1989.
44. Sahai J.V., Healy D.P., Berry, A.J., Polk R.E.: Vancomycin and the red-man
syndrome: Effect of antihistamine pretreatment, Journal of Infectious Diseases. 5:876-881, 1989.
45. Healy D.P., Polk R.E., Rock D., Kanawati L., Buch A.: Pharmacokinetic
interaction between ciprofloxacin and caffeine in normal volunteers, Antimicrob Ag Chemo. 33:474-478, 1989.
46. Sahai J.V., Polk R.E., Schwartz L.B., Healy D.P., Westin E.: Severe reaction to
vancomycin not mediated by histamine release. Journal of Infectious Diseases: 158:1413-1414, 1988 (letter).
47. Noyes M., Polk R.E.: Interaction between norfloxacin and magnesium aluminum
antacid. Ann Int Med (letter) 109:168-169, 1988.
48. Sahai J., Heimberger T., Collins K., Kaplowitz L., Polk R.: Sulfadiazine-induced
crystalluria in a patient with AIDS: A reminder. Am J Med, 84:791 (letter), 1988.
49. Sahai J., Polk R.E.: Teicoplanin and daptomycin. Hospital Therapy 13:78-96,
50. Polk, R.E.: Therapy Consultation, Vancomycin and the red-man syndrome. Clin.
51. Polk R.E., Healy D.P., Schwartz L., et al.: Vancomycin and the "red man's
syndrome": Pharmacodynamics of histamine release. J Infect. Dis. 157:502-507, 1988.
52. Colaizzi, P., Goodwin, D., Polk, R.: Single-dose pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime
and cefamandole in healthy subjects. Clinical Pharmacy 6:894-899, 1987.
53. Healy D.P., Polk R.E., Rock D., et al.: Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of
vancomycin: Comparison of two dose regimens. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 31:393-397, 1987.
54. Polk R.E.: The role of the infectious diseases physician in monitoring
antimicrobial use: A pharmacy perspective. Bull NY Acad Med 63:612-626, 1987.
55. Sica D., Polk R.E., Kerkering T.M., Patterson, P., Baggett J.: Cefmenoxime
kinetics during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 30:713-717, 1986.
56. Polk, R.E.: Commentary of Aztreonam. Pharmacotherapy 6:149-150, 1986.
57. Colaizzi, P., Coniglio, T., Poynor, W., Polk, R.: Multiple dose pharmacokinetics
of mezlocillin following two dosage schedules. Antimicrob Ag Chemo 30:675-678, 1986.
58. Tartaglione, T., Nye, L., Poynor, W., Polk, R.: Comparative multiple dose
pharmacokinetics of azlocillin and piperacillin. Clinical Pharmacy 5:911-916, 1986.
59. Hartford, A.M., Sica, D.A., Tartaglione T, Polk, R.E., Halton, H.P., Poynor, W.:
Vancomycin pharmacokinetics in continuous ambulatory peritoreal dialysis patients with peritonitis. Nephron 43:217-222, 1986.
60. Polk, R., Hepler, C.D.: Critical evaluation of antimicrobial clinical trials. Am J
61. Colaizzi, P., Polk, R., Poynor, W., et al: Comparative pharmacokinetics of
azlocillin and piperacillin following a single dose. Antimicrob Ag Chemo 29:938-940, 1986.
62. Tartaglione, T., Polk, R.: Review of the new second-generation cephalosporins.
Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19:188-198, 1985.
63. Polk, R.E.: Commentary on ceftriaxone. Pharmacotherapy 5:251-252, 1985.
64. Polk, R.E., Sica, D.A., Kerkering, T.M., et al.: Cefmenoxime pharmacokinetics in
renal insufficiency. Antimicrob. Agents Chemo. 26:322-327, 1984.
65. Polk, R.E., Mayhall, C.G., Tartaglione, T.A., et al.: Sequential Ventricular Fluid
Concentrations of Ceftazidime -Report of Three Cases. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 18:984-987, 1984.
66. Mayhall, C.G., Polk, R.E., Haynes, B.W.: Infections in Burned Patients. Infection
67. Mayhall, C., Polk, R., Haynes, B.: Infektionen bei Patienten mit Verbrennangen.
Hyg + Med. 9:367-371, 1984 (German translation of above citation).
68. Hume, A.L., Polk, R., Cardea, J.: Comparative Bone Penetration of Latamoxef
(Moxalactam) and Cefazolin into Human Knee Following Simultaneous Administration. J. Antimicrob. Chem. 12:623-627, 1983.
69. Stephens, N., Kronfol, N., Polk, R., Kline, B.: Peritoneal absorption of
moxalactam. Antimicrob. Ag. Chemo. 24:39-41, 1983.
70. Polk, R.E., Hume, A., Cardea, J.: Penetration of Moxalactam and Cefazolin Into
Bone Following Simultaneous Bolus or Infusion. Clin. Orthopedics and Related Research. 177:216-221, 1983.
71. Polk, R.E., Mayhall, C.G., Swenson, E., Haynes, B.W.: Gentamicin and
Tobramycin Penetration Into Burn Eschar: Pharmacokinetics and Microbiologic Effects. Arch. Surg. 118:295-302, 1983.
72. Polk, R.E.: Third Generation Cephalosporins: Possible Impact Upon Pharmacy
Practice. Pharmacotherapy. 2:172-173, 1982.
73. Polk, R.E., Smith, J.E., Ducey, K., Lower, R.: Penetration of Moxalactam and
Cefazolin Into Atrial Appendage Following Simultaneous IM or IV Administration. Antimicrob. Agents Chemotherapy. 22:201-203, 1982.
74. Polk, R.E.: Moxalactam and Cefotaxime: A Comparison. Clinical Pharmacy,
75. Ameer, B., Polk, R.E.: The Influence of Food Upon the Bioavailability of
Ethambutol. Clin. Pharm. 1:156-157, 1982.
76. Polk, R.E.: Moxalactam. Drug Intell. Clin. Pharm., 16:104-112, 1982.
77. Polk, R.E., Markowitz, S.M.: Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Moxalactam and
Cefazolin After Simultaneous Infusion. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, 20:576, 1981.
78. Polk, R.E., Markowitz, S.M., Mayhall, C.G.: Aminoglycoside Predictions Using a
Hand-Hald Calculator: Limitations of the Model. Drug Intell. Clin. Pharm. 15:751, 1981.
79. Polk, R.E., Stephens, G.: The Effects of Cefazolin and Moxalactam on Serum
Chemistry Results From An Auto Analyzer (SMAC) Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 38:866-868, 1981.
80. Henderson, J., Polk, R.E., Kline, B.: In Vitro Inactivation of Gentamicin,
Tobramycin, and Netilmicin by carbenicillin, Azlocillin and Mezlocillin. Am J. Hosp. Pharm. 38:1167-1170, 1981.
81. Polk, R.E., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Lockridge, R.: In Vitro Evaluation of a
Vancomycin Radioimmunoassay and Observations on Vancomycin Pharmacokinetics in Dialysis Patients. Drug Intell. Clin. Pharm. 15:15-20, 1981.
82. Polk, R.E., Kline, B.: Mail Order Tobramycin Levels. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm.,
83. Polk, R.E., Tenenbaum, M., Kline, B.: Isoniazid and Ethambutol Absorption in a
Post-jejunoileal Bypass Patient, Annals of Internal Medicine (letter) 89:430, 1978.
84. Archer, G.L., Polk, R.E., Duma, R., Lower, R.: A Comparison of Cephalothin and
Cefamandole Prophylaxis During Insertion of Prosthetic Heart Valves. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 13:924, 1978.
85. Polk, R.E., Archer, G.L., Lower, R.: Pharmacokinetics of Cefamandole in
Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 23:473, 1978.
1. Pakyz A and Polk R. Antibiotic Use in Hospitals in the United States SCOPE-
MMIT Antimicrobial Surveillance Network in Antibiotic Policies: Fighting Resistance, Gould, Ian M.; van der Meer, Jos W.M. (Eds.) 2007, Approx. 450 p. 29 illus., Hardcover. ISBN: 978-0-387-70840-9
2. Archer, G.L., and Polk, R.E. Therapy and Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections. In:
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine,). Isselbacher, Braunwald, Wilson, Martin, Fauci, Kasper (eds). McGraw Hill. 13th Edition (Chapter 99) 1994, 14th Edition (1997), 15th edition (2001) and 16th edition (2004), 17th edition (2007, in press).
3. Polk RE, Fishman NO. Antimicrobial Management and Cost Containment. 6th
edition of Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Mandell, Benett, Douglas (eds). Churchill Livingstone, November 2004.
4. Polk, RE, Qaquish R. “Drug-Drug Interactions with Antimicrobials”, in of
“Antimicrobial and Chemotherapy”, 8th edition, Finch, Greenwood, Norrby & Whitley (eds). Churchill Livingstone, London. (2003)
5. Qaquish R, Polk RE. “Fluoroquinolone Drug-Drug Interactions”. In, “Quinolone Antimicorbial Agents”, 3rd edition, edited by David Hooper, M.D. (Harvard) and Ethan Rubenstein, M.D. (Tel Aviv, Israel). American Society for Microbiology (2003)
6. Polk RE. “Measuring Antimicrobial Prescribing and Bacterial Resistance” in,
“Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections”. (Chapter 15), 4th edition, Dr. Richard Wenzel (ed.) Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2003)
7. Polk RE. Antimicrobials and antiparasites. In, Metabolic Drug Interactions, (Levy,
Thummel, Trager, Hansten, Eichelbaum, eds.) Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000. Chapter 46.
8. Monroe S, Polk RE. Teichoplanin. In, Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccines, Yu,
Merigan, Barriere (eds). Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 1998.
9. Monroe S, Polk RE. Vancomycin. In, Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccines, Yu,
Merigan, Barriere (eds). Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 1998.
10. Healy, D.P., and Polk, R.E. Infectious Endocarditis, in Applied Therapeutics:
The Clinical Use of Drugs. Fourth Edition. 1988, Fifth Edition, 1992.
11. Polk, R.E., DiPiro, J. and Fisher, J. Infective Endocarditis, in Pharmacotherapy.
12. Polk RE. Infective Endocarditis, in Pharmacotherapy, Third Ed. 1996,
13. Crouch M, Polk RE. Endocarditis, in Pharmacotherapy, Fourth Ed. 1999.
14. Polk R.E., Israel, D. Tolerance to Macrolides, In: Macrolides, Brysker, A.,
Butzler, J.P., Neu, H., Tulkens, P. (eds.) (1993)
1. Medscape posting of the proceedings, Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: A Neglected Healthcare Crisis? Ebbing Lautenbach, MD, MPH, MSCE, Program Chair; Trish M. Perl, MD, MSc; Ron E. Polk, PharmD. Based on presentations delivered at the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) satellite symposium held in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 16, 2007.The CME activity can
be accessed at the following URL: http://cmsprepub.medscape.com/viewprogram/7339.
2. Polk RE, Oinonen M, Pakyz A. Epidemic Clostridium difficile. New England
Journal of Medicine. 2006; 354: 1200- 1. (Correspondence)
3. Polk RE. Antimicrobial formularies: can they minimize antimicrobial resistance?
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003 May 15;60(10 Suppl 1):S16-9.
4. Mahoney A, Polk RE. P&T Snapshot: Pneumonia, P&T (journal) , 28: 477-479,
5. Polk RE. New formulary definitions for antibiotic resistance urged. Pharmacy
6. The path to least resistance. Infectious Diseases News. May 2003. 7. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: the unintended consequences.
8. J. Woolley, S. Studenberg, B. Sadler, G. Chittick, R. Dahl, I. Correa, G. Bowers,
S. Castellino, T. Kerkering, A. Pastor, C. March, and R. Polk . The disposition of [14c]-amprenavir in human volunteers. Pharm Sci (suppl) 1: abstr. 2044, 1998.
9. Watkins V, Polk, RE, Stotka J. Drug Interactions of Macrolides: Emphasis on
dirithromycin. Ann Pharmacotherapy 31: 349-356, 1997
10. Polk RE. Vancomycin prescribing in the eara of VRE. (editorial) .
11. Gillum JG, Polk RE. Cefipime. Hospital Formulary 29:503-514, 1994.
12. Barriere, S., Dudley, M., Kowalsky, S., Kreter, B., Polk, R., Prince, R.,
Tartaglione, T.: The role of the pharmacist in antimicrobial agent therapy (letter). J. Infectious Diseases 159; 593, 1989.
13. Polk, R.E. Infectious Disease: Surgical Prophylaxis: A Basic bibliography.
14. Polk, R.E. Comment: Therapeutic Decision Making. Drug Intell Clin Pharm.
15. Polk, R.E. A Clinical Consideration in Antibiotic Selection for Nosoconial
Infections. Advances in Therapy 4:111-123, 1987.
16. Kerkering, T.M., Polk, R., Williams, R.B., "Antibiotic Therapy for Pneumonia"
(video recording), produced by Virginia Hospital Television Network, Office of Continuing Education in Medicine and Allied Health Professions, Medical College
of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University (Richmond, VA): Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University, 1990.
17. Polk, R.E. Preventing Vancomycin Reactions. Seminars in Dialysis. 4:63-64,
18. Polk, R.E. Pharmacodynamic Techniques for Antimicrobial Therapy, Update on
Infectious Diseases Therapeutics - Focus on -lactamase Inhibitor Therapy. Symposium Highlights Bulletin, Oct. 4-7, 1990, p.6-8.
19. Israel D., Polk RE. Focus on azithromycin and clarithromycin. Hospital
20. Polk RE. Drug interactions with macrolides antibiotics. Proceedings of the First
international Conference on Macrolides, Azalides and Streptogramins. Published in, The New Macrolides, Azalides, and Streptogramins. Neu, Young, Zimmer (eds). Chapter 9, Marcel Dekker, 1993.
21. Ballow CH, Israel D, Amsden GW, Forrest A, Nix DE, Polk RE, Schentag JJ.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous ciprofloxacin versus imipenem in patients with severe nosocomial pneumonia. 18th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden. June 27, 1993
22. Polk RE. Comment: Aminoglycoside dosing considerations. Annals
23. Polk RE. Invited editorial comment on, "Terfenadine-ketoconazole interaction:
Pharmacokinetic and electrocardiac consequences." JAMA 269:1513, 1993, published in, Abstracts in Infectious Diseases, 3:10, 1993
24. Fink MP, Snydman DR, Niederman MS, et al. Treatment of severe pneumonia in
hospitalized patients: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial comparing intravenous ciprofloxacin with imipenem-cilastatin. . Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 38:547-557, 1994. (listed as a member of the "Severe Pneumonia Study Group")
Major presentations: National and international (since 1993)
1. Ron Polk, Pharm.D., and Thomas M. Hooton, M.D., Professor of Medicine,
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, gave a “Meet the Experts” session on “Antimicrobial Stewardship: What Works” at 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). Chicago, IL, September 19, 2007.
2. Ron Polk, Pharm.D., and Dominique L. Monnet, PharmD PhD, Senior Expert,
Scientific Advice Unit, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden, gave a “Meet the Experts” session on “Measuring and Interpreting Antibiotic Consumption in Hospitals” at the 47th Interscience
Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). Chicago, IL, September 18, 2007.
3. Ron Polk, Pharm.D. and Inge C. Gyssens , MD, Dept Medical Microbiology and
Infectious Diseases, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands coordinated a full-day pre-meeting workshop at the 47th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). Chicago, IL, September 16, 2007. “Monitoring, Evaluating and Managing Antimicrobial Use in Hospitals”. (Note: this is the 6th consecutive year this workshop has been offered).
4. “Antibiotic use and resistance in hospitals: a U.S. viewpoint”, and “Management
of hospitalized infected patients (with Jos van der Meer, MD) given at 34th Postgraduate Education Course, “Measuring, Auditing and Improving Antimicrobial Prescribing“, 30th March – 1st April 2006, Nice, France.
5. "Measuring Antibiotic Use and Outcomes", at a “Meet-the-Professors” session
(with John McGowan, MD, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health), 43rd Annual Meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of American (IDSA). 2005.
6. Measuring Antibiotic Consumption in Hospitals. Co-presentation (with Dom
Monnet, Pharm.D., Ph.D.). Invited “Meet the experts” presentations, at 45th Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC). Washington, DC. Dec. 2005.
7. Presentation, Pre-ESCMID meeting Workshop. Measuring antibiotic use and
bacterial resistance, Pruhonice, Czech Republick, April 30, 2004.
8. Gave two presentations at an ARPAC (Antimicrobial Resistance: Prevention and
Control) Meeting: Measuring antimicrobial drug use and The role of pharmacy in managing antimicrobial drug use, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, November 22-24, 2004.
9. Antibiotic use and bacterial resistance, ASHP midyear meeting, Dec. 8, 2003.
10. Antibiotic use and resistance, Jan. 20, 2001. Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Oxford,
11. The SCOPE/MMIT network, March 16, 2001. Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Siena,
12. Should Computer Recommendations be graded according to the Quality of the
Evidence? Computer-decision support for antibiotic prescribing Conference. June 15, 2001, Salt Lake City, UT.
13. Antibiotic Cycling: in an Antimicrobial Session on Nov. 6, 2000 at the ACCP
14. Antibiotic Cycling. Potential and pitfalls, Annual Meeting, Am Soc of Health
Systems Pharmacists, Dec. 6, 2000. Las Vegas
15. R Polk: Drug-drug Interactions in Patients with HIV infection. 7th International
Congress for Infectious Diseases, Hong Kong, June 1996
16. R Polk: The Future of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Antimicrobials: Lessons
from the past. “State of the Art” minilecture, 36th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobials Agents and Chemotherapy, September 15-18, 1996, New Orleans, LA.
17. R Polk: Antibiotic Drug-Drug Interactions, 1996 International Symposium on Drug
Interactions, Toronto, Canada. December 4, 1996. Drug Information Association.
18. Epidemiology of Gram-positive resistance, Program on Emerging Resistance in
Gram-positive bacteria, Presented at the ASHP Midyear Clinical meeting, Dec. 8, 1996. New Orleans, LA.
19. Chair of National Launch Symposium for Ertapenem (Merck), Vancouver, BC.
August 2/3. And gave two presentations, “Antibiotic use and resistance”, and “Putting it all together”.
20. Presentation, Fluoroquinolone Use and resistance in P. aeruginosa, Principality
of Monte Carlo. Dec. 7, 2001. Aventis Pharma.
21. Approaches to controlling antimicrobial use in healthcare facilities. 26th Annual
Meeting of Association of Practitioners in Infection Control (APIC), Baltimore, MD. June 20-24, 1999.
22. Keynote Address: First Annual Symposium, Infectious Diseases
23. Plenary Session III. The Role of Antibiotic Control. “Antibiotic Control in the
National Policy: Effective Tools.” The Society for Health Care
Epidemiology of America (SHEA) . 8th Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL. April 5-7, 1998.
24. Plenary Presentation, “Antibiotic management in the absence of national
Guidelines: Effective tools.: Annual Meeting, American Society for Health Care Epidemionoly, Orlando, FL. April 4, 1998.
25. “Role of the Infectious Diseases Pharmacist in Today’s Health Care System:
How to make a difference”. Keynote address, First annual Infectious Diseases Symposium for pharmacists, Orlando, FL. May 9, 1998
26. International symposium on drug-drug interactions, Baltimore MD. Antibiotic
27. International symposium on drug-drug interactions, Washington DC. Antibiotic
28. Plenary Session, Annual Meeting, Infectious Diseases Society of America, “The
ID MD vs. the ID Pharm.D.: Cooperation or conflict. San Francisco, Sept. 13, 1997.
29. Antibiotic Drug-Drug Interactions, presented at IBC’s Second Annual Conference
on Drug-Drug Interactions. December 15-16, 1997. Washington, DC.
30. HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors. Presented at the Second International Symposium on
Drug-Drug Interactions: Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives, November 20-21, 1997. Baltimore, MD.
31. Point-Counterpoint presentation. The ID M.D. vs. the ID Pharm.D.: Conflict or
35th Annual Meeting, Infectious Diseases Society of
32. Antibiotic Drug-Drug Interactions, 1996 International Symposium on Drug
Interactions, Toronto, Canada. December 4, 1996. Drug Information Association.
33. Drug-drug Interactions in Patients with HIV infection. 7th International Congress
for Infectious Diseases, Hong Kong, June 1996
34. The Future of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Antimicrobials: Lessons from the
past. “State of the Art” minilecture, 36th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobials Agents and Chemotherapy, September 15-18, 1996, New orleans, LA.
35. Rational Approach to Predicting Drug-drug Interactions with Antimicrobials.
Invited address to, 19th International Congress of Chemotherapy, July 16-21, 1995. Montreal, Quebec.Canada
36. Visiting Professor, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussells, Belgium. December
37. Drug Interactions: State of the Art Mini-lecture. 34th Interscience Conference on
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Orlando, Fla. October 5, 1994
38. Drug interactions with fluoroquinolone antibiotics and patient education.
Presented at the international symposium , “Quinolones: the Present and the Future”, in Chantilly, VA. August 27-30, 1993.
Parcours universitaire Hochschule für Musik de Freiburg im Breisgau (Allemagne)Cursus de chant dans la classe de T. Sato-Schöllhorn et d’opéra auprès de Gerd Heinz et Alexander Schulin Diplômes obtenus: “ Künstlerische Ausbildung” : Double-diplôme artistique en chant mention Opéra et mention Lied/OratorioDiplôme de pédagogie en enseignement du chant. « Musiklehrer Diplom »
Committee: Security Council Briefing Paper: Pharmaceutical Companies and their Role in the Developing World What’s the issue? The modern pharmaceutical industry is a lucrative one, with the largest ten pharmaceutical companies in the world each featuring in the top 400 companies in the world (for example, the USA based pharmaceutical company Pfizer reported sales of $45,083