Bovine layout rev. 6/03
Bovine Layout rev. 6/03 6/2/03 1:32 PM Page 1
open cow. (Light blue or bright blue test result.) Pregnant cowscontinue to produce progesterone throughout gestation (white test
The stress of milk production can effect the cyclic activity. Also,
Milk samples should be collected into a clean container. Samples of
Progesterone, a natural hormone that circulates in the cow’s
the hormonal activity after calving can reduce the intensity of estrus
foremilk or from the milk jug are best. The last milk can be used, but
blood and can be found in the milk, is produced by the corpus
behavior. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to observe heat. If a
it is less preferred. Initial strippings should not be used. Label the
Two important uses for the TARGET test are when a cow is sus-
luteum (CL) and fluctuates during a normal estrous cycle. Milk
milk sample taken on the suspected day of estrus gives a bright
samples with the cow number, sampling date, and cycle day.
pected to be in heat to confirm estrus or about 20 days after
or blood progesterone levels accurately reflect the different
blue result, this confirms that the cow is in heat and ovulation is
insemination to check if the cow is open. At 20 days after insemi-
If a milk sample is not tested within 30 min., it should be stored in the
nation progesterone levels will be low (bright blue) if the cow is
refrigeratior- do not freeze. If a milk sample is to be tested more than
open, or high (white) if the cow is pregnant. The open cow can
The various stages of the estrous cycle are:
6 hrs later, add one drop of milk preservative (ormilk preservative
Estrus (or standing heat) Day 0: The cycle begins. The nor-
tablet) to each 10 mls of milk immediately after collection.
mal cycle is about 21 days. Each heat (estrus) lasts 6-18 hours.
• TARGET can be useful in diagnosing cysts. A normally cycling
When used in this way TARGET can help improve breeding effi-
Progesterone levels are lowest during this time (see figure). The
cow will show one white and one blue result for two samples taken
Allow samples and all kt reagents to come to room temperature
before starting test (2-24 hrs). Use a timer while performing the test.
Metestrus (Day 1-7): Ovulation occurs after estrus; the CL
• If the results for two samples taken 7 days apart for a nonpreg-
forms on the ovary and begins producing progesterone. The
nant cow are both white, this indicates a luteal cyst. Cows with
progesterone levels begin to rise. The test result is light blue.
Prostaglandin is used when the cow has a functional corpus
luteal cysts can be treated with prostaglandin. The treatment was
Diestrus (Day 8-16): The progesterone concentration is
luteum (progesterone level is high) in order to induce heat (low
Store this kit in the refrigerator when not in use. Do not freeze.
effective, if a TARGET test taken 2-4 days after treatment shows
very high during this time. The test result is white.
bright blue results. This means the cow is now in heat and can be
Proestrus (Day 17 to the onset of the next estrus): The CL
Always reseal the plastic bag after removing a test cup.
In order for prostaglandin to be most effective, it is important to
begins to regress and the progesterone levels begin to drop.
know where the cow is in her cycle at the time of the injection in
Timing during Step 2 (Time of the enzyme)
• Cows that have consistently low progesterone results (bright
blue) for two samples taken 7 days apart are likely to have a
Progesterone levels during the reproductive cycle
For an unbred cow, a white result indicates that the cow is in
follicular cyst. Cows with follicular cysts can be treated with GnRH
In normally cycling cows a low progesterone level indicates an
diestrus or may have a persist corpus luteum. Prostaglandin may
or hCG and bred when they come into heat. The therapy was
Do not exchange test cups or reagents between different kits.
be used at the time of a white result to bring her into heat. About
effective, if a white result (high progesterone) is obtained for a sam-
72 hours after prostaglandin administration, a progesterone test
ple taken 10 days after treatment for a follicular cyst .
will confirm heat (bright blue result). If the result is not bright blue,
the CL has not fully regressed and could recover. Another treat-
ment of prostaglandin is advisable in this case.
Progesterone testing of the recipient cow is an important step in an
For a cow that has been bred, a white result 20 days after
embryo transfer protocol. It is recommended that the proges-
insemination can indicate pregnancy. Prostaglandin should NOT
terone level in the recipient be greater than 3 ng/ml for the best
be used at this time, since it lowers progesterone and will cause an
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 Days
Bovine Layout rev. 6/03 6/2/03 1:32 PM Page 2
Take the kit out of the refrigerator at least 2 hours before
using it in order to allow the kit to come to room temperature.
No progesterone is present and there is NO functional CL.
(It is possible to leave the kit at room temperature overnight,
Bright blue means standing heat in normally cycling cows .
In the prepubertal hefer or postpartum cow, a bright blue result can
0 - 1 ng/ml
A bright blue test result for each of 2 samples taken 7 days apart
strongly indicates the presence of a follicular cyst.
1 Add 4 drops of milk or serum or plasma to
Progesterone is either rising after heat or falling (approaching heat).
See Figure. A second test should be run in 2 days.
If a test is repeated 2-3 days later, the results will be either bright
blue (heat) or white (high progesterone).
• This kit is the most accurate method for determining the
In embryo transfer the recipient should show a light blue test resultwhen an embryo is transferred.
presence of a corpus luteum (CL) and for determining if it
1 - 5 ng/ml
• By identifying open cows earlier this kit will reduce the
Wait for liquid to drain into cup. REPEAT this step 1X or
A white result indicates a high progesterone level and a functional
• Recommended for use in embryo transfer programs to
* Throw out any unused solution in the blue mixing bottle after 30 min-
utes, since the substrate decomposes. Save blue mixing bottle for
A) A white result indicates pregnancy if the test was taken 19 to
23 days after breeding or that the cow is in mid cycle.
B) A white test result for each of 2 samples taken 7 days apart
strongly indicates the presence of a luteal cyst.
> 5 ng/ml
Sumatra Tiger Qualifiziert E.B.F. 1. Mutter Sohaila, 1 Sieg 3j., 1-mal placiert. Mutter von 3 früheren Fohlen, 2 auf der Rennbahn, 2 Sieger : Saraab (2002 H. v. Alwuhush (USA)), 1 Sieg 3j.-2005, 7-mal placiert incl. 4. in Hallesche Auktionsrennen, Halle, Hannoversches Auktionsrennen,Hannover - GAG 75 kg. Smaranda (2003 St. v. Kornado (GB)), 1 Sieg 2j.-2005 in Frankreich, 1-mal
DC3 Creative Agency | Freelance User Interface Designer Brooklyn, NY • 2011 (Schoolit, BistroMD, TEDxHarlem, Foodang, Lord & Taylor, Wacoal) • Conceptualize and design elaborate wireframes for mobile apps and websites• Collaborate with designers and developers in restructuring the Schoolit website toBrainstorm and contribute on campaign concepts, promotional packages