What is thrush?
Candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in people with HIV. It is an infection caused by a common type of yeast(or fungus) called candida. This yeast is found in most people's body. A healthy immune system keeps it under control.
Candida usually infects the mouth, throat or vagina. It can occur months or years before other, more serious opportunis-tic infections.
In the mouth, the infection is called oral candidiasis or
Local treatments include:
thrush. When the infection spreads deeper into the throatit is called esophagitis. It looks like white patches similar to
cottage cheese, or red spots. It can cause a painful throat,
difficulty swallowing, nausea and loss of appetite.
● liquids● “troches” or “lozenges” that dissolve in the mouth.
In the vagina, the infection is called vaginitis, a commonvaginal infection. Symptoms include itching, burning and a
Local treatment may cause some stinging or irritation.
Systemic treatment is needed if local treatment doesn’twork or if the infection has spread into the throat
Candida can also spread and cause infection in the brain,
(esophagitis) or other parts of the body. Some systemic
drugs are taken in pill form. The most common side effectsare nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Less than 20%
Can it be prevented?
There is no way to prevent exposure to candida.
Candidiasis can come back repeatedly. Some health care
Medications are not normally used to prevent candidiasis.
providers prescribe anti-fungal drugs on a long-term basis.
This can cause resistance. The yeast can mutate so that adrug no longer works.
● It is not very dangerous● There are effective drugs to treat it
● The yeast could develop resistance to the medications.
Several non-drug therapies seem to help. Although theyhave not been carefully studied to prove that they work,
Strengthening your system by taking an antiretroviral drug
they can be used as a complement to conventional thera-
combination that stops HIV replication is the best way to
● Reduce the amount of sugar you eat.
● Take garlic supplements or eat raw garlic. Garlic has anti-
How is it treated?
fungal and anti-bacterial properties. However, it caninterfere with the blood levels of some anti-HIV drugs.
Bacteria found in the body are kept in balance by a healthy
Garlic supplements or an intake of large amounts of
immune system. These bacteria are also essential to keep
garlic in a person’s diet can cause problems for people
candida in balance in our system. Some antibiotics kill
these helpful bacteria and may cause an outbreak of can-
● Eat yoghurt with lactobacillus (acidophilus). It may help
didiasis. Treating candidiasis will not get rid of the yeast,
to take it alter taking antibiotics.
● Take supplements of gamma-linoleic acid (an essential T-
cell regulator) and Biotin (vitamin B). They both seem to
Treatments can be local or systemic. Local treatments are
slow the spread of candida. GLA is found in several
applied where the infection is found. Systemic treatments
affect the whole body. Many health care providers preferto use local treatment first. It puts the medication directly
It is important that your doctor knows all the medications
where it is needed and has fewer side effects than a sys-
you are taking or are considering to take, including vitamin
temic treatment. Moreover, there is less risk of candida
supplements, herbal remedies or homeopathic prepara-
becoming resistant to the medications. Te medications
used to fight candida are antifungal drugs. Their namesend in “-azole.” They include clotrimazole, nystatin, flu-
Source: Adapted from www.aidsinfonet.org Fact sheet
grupo de trabajo
sobre tratamientos del VIH
Vasculiti.it Paolo Greco, Augusto Vaglio, Lucio Manenti, Carlo Buzio Dipartimento di Clinica Medica, Nefrologia e Scienze della Prevenzione, Università degli Studi di Parma INTRODUZIONE La fibrosi retroperitoneale (FR) si può definire come una malattia del connettivo ed è caratterizzata dallo sviluppo di un tessuto fibro-infiammatorio a livello retroperitoneale (1, 2). La
Maher Helmy Elsayed Helal Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Phone: (002)0225565548, Mobile: 0101154456, E-mail: ______________________________ Education .Ph.D., Organic Chemistry, Helwan Universit y 1990-1994 .M. Sc., , Organic Chemistry Helwan Universit y 1983-1990 .B. Sc., Chemistry, Elmnofia University 1982 _______________________