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The Agriculturists 11(2): 58-65 (2013) ISSN 2304-7321 (Online), ISSN 1729-5211 (Print) A Scientific Journal of Krishi Foundation Indexed Journal
DOI: Milk Composition and Quality of Sahiwal – Friesian Crossbred Cow
Studied in Malaysia
M. A. I. Talukder1*, J. M. Panandam2, Y. Halimatun2 and I. Idris2 1 GSDR Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka-1341, Bangladesh 2 Department of Animal Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, *Corresponding author and Email:

Six groups of Sahiwal-Friesian crossbred cows, namely M50-1, M50-2, M50-3, M56, M63 and M75-1
were evaluated. In total 180 cows were used and milk collected was evaluated for composition and
quality. The effect of genotypes was significant (P≤0.05) only for titrable acidity (TA) and milk yield
(MY). The M50-1 had the highest milk yield per day (8.73 ± 1.65 kg) but this was not significantly
different from the yields of M50-3, M56 and M75-1 (7.06 ± 0.84, 7.06 ± 0.96, 7.70 ± 0.82 kg),
respectively. Lactation stage had significant (P≤0.05) effect on milk yield, fat content, solids-not fat
(SNF) content, total solid (TS) content, moisture content and specific gravity (Sp. Gr). Fat content at
early lactation was significantly (P≤0.01) lower than at middle and late lactation (3.69 vs 4.27 and
4.50, respectively). SNF content for middle lactation was significantly lower (P≤0.05) than that at
early and late lactations. At late lactation, TS and moisture contents were significantly (P≤0.05) higher
than those at early lactation. The range of milk composition and quality such as fat (3.96 - 4.50%),
SNF (9.02 - 9.40%), TS (13.01-13.81%), moisture (86.26 - 87.07%), Sp.Gr. (1.030- 1.031), pH (6.74 -
6.91), TA (0.13 - 0.15%), MBRT (6.50 -7.40 h) belonged to normal range. M50-1, M50-3, M56 and
M75-1 had higher test day milk yield. The optimum level of Friesian inheritance in combination with
Sahiwal for MY appeared to be 75%, 56% and 50% with selection for milk production. The
composition and quality of milk from the Sahiwal - Friesian crossbred cows met the required standard.
Keywords: Milk composition, quality, Sahiwal – Friesian, crossbred
1. Introduction

the country. In order to realise these targets, the The self- sufficiency for milk in Malaysia is only programmed involving the Sahiwal and Friesian dairy cattle breeds (Osman, 1993). It was Malaysia is mainly dependent on imported milk expected that with substantial increase in the and milk products. The import of dairy products number of improved dairy cattle, the supply of leads to loss of foreign exchange. The demand milk and milk products from local sources would for livestock products as a source of high quality protein is expected to continue to rise with the increasing population and per capita income, The Department of Veterinary Services imported consistent with the overall rapid development of a large number of Sahiwal × Friesian crossbreds 59 Milk composition and quality of crossbred cow and purebred Friesians from Australia and New lactation (early lactation: 1-30 days, middle Zealand in 1978 (Sivarajasingam et al., 1982). lactation: 110-130 days and late lactation: 290- The crossbreeding programme aimed for grading up crossbreds by continual crossing with Friesian. Crossbreds with 50, 56.25, 62.5 and 75% Friesian genes have been produced as a Individual milk samples were collected at three result. Studied on milk production of various different times during the stage of lactation. 250 dairy cattle in Malaysia showed that Sahiwal – ml of milk sample from each cow was collected Friesian crossbred cows had good milking from morning milk in sterile sampling bottle and immediate by kept in icebox. Before testing the (Raymond and Ratnakumar, 1997). The present temperature and sample in bottles were shaken composition and quality of Sahiwal – Friesian gently. Chemical analysis [fat content, solids-not fat (SNF) content, total solid (TS) content, moisture content, specific gravity (Sp. Gr), 2. Materials and Methods
titrable acidity (TA), methylene blue reduction test (MBRT) and pH] of the samples was carried Cows from the research farm of the Ladang out in Milk Collection Centre (MCC) of the Pusat Ternakan Haiwan at Ayer Hitam, Johor under the Department of Veterinary Service (DVS), Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia, were Six crossbreed groups were evaluated. The used in this study. The farm was situated crossbreed groups M50-1 (Sahiwal × Friesian approximately 20 meters above sea level at F2), M50-2 (Sahiwal × Friesian F3), M50-3 latitude 5 ºN and longitude 102 ºE. The farm (Sahiwal × Friesian F4), M56 (Sahiwal × Friesian received an average annual rainfall of 3000 mm, 45.75% Sahiwal × 56.25% Friesian BC3), M63 mean monthly temperature ranging from 26 to (Sahiwal × Friesian, 37.5% Sahiwal × 62.5% 39 ºC, and average relative humidity of 60% to Friesian BC2), and M75-1 (Sahiwal × Friesian, 25% Sahiwal × 75% Friesian) were evaluated. The cattle production records studied were those The breeding design practiced was continuous upgrading of the Sahiwal - Friesian F1 to comprised of Sahiwal – Friesian crossbred cows Holstein. Prior to 1989, all mating were of various percentage of Friesian inheritance. accomplished by means of artificial insemination Sahiwal × Friesian F1 crosses were imported (AI) using imported semen of selected sires. from Australia and New Zealand as heifers or as heifer calves (Sivarajasingam and Kumar, 1993). supplemented with semen collected at the Through inter se mating and crossbreeding, using imported semen and that from selected Jerantut, Pahang. Cows were selected on the sires, a number of crossbred groups with Friesian inheritance ranging from 50-75% were produced. The management practice was to keep cows on Milk samples were collected from a sample of pasture throughout the day and night except the breed group available at the Ladang Pusat during milking. The pastures were mainly of Animals were selected on the basis of available maximum and Paspalm sp. The heifer and cows breed group and stages of lactation. Thirty were allowed to graze on pasture at the rate of lactating cows from each breed group were used. 1.7 acre /animal. Milking cows were supplied Cows were selected on the basis of their stage of with concentrate palm kernal cake (PKC) before Talukder et al. /The Agriculturists 11(2): 58-65 (2013) 60 milking. Level of feeding was determined on the (G × L)ij = effect of interaction between breed basis of milk output, approximately 1 kg concentrate for every 4 kg of milk produced. Y k = effect of year of calving (k = 1985 - The lactating cows were milked twice daily using machines, once in the morning (7.30 a.m.) e ijkl = random error, assumed to be normally and again in the afternoon (3.30 p.m.). Each milking was preceded by an udder wash with a clean warm towel. After milking the teats were dipped in iodine solution for prevention of 3. Results and Discussion
mastitis. Morning and evening milk production were recorded to determine the total milk yield The analyses of variance for the different milk composition and quality test are presented in Tables 1 and 2. There was no significant The milk composition and quality tests from a interaction between breed group except in MY in milk composition traits (Table 1). All milk statistical analysis of the data was performed for composition traits were significantly different analysis of variance model procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) for Windows 2000 PC software package. The differences between treatment means were examined using 3.1. Effect of breed group

The effect of breed group was significant (P≤0.05) only for titrable acidity (TA) and milk The data on milk composition were analyzed yield (MY) (Table 3). M50-1, M50-3, M56 and
M75-1 had higher test day milk yield however, Yijkl = µ + Gi + Lj + (G × L)ij + Y k + e ijkl they were not significantly different among them (Table 3). Although, Nevens (2010) stated that there was wide variation in the amount of milk Yijkl = an observation on milk composition, produced by cows within a breed. The optimum level of Friesian inheritance in combination with Gi = effect of breed group of cow (i = M50-1, Sahiwal for MY appeared to be 75-1%, 56%, 50- Lj = effect of the lactation stage (j = 1—3, 1 =
Table 1.
Analysis of variance of milk composition traits
BG = Breed group, LS = Lactation stage, MY= milk yield, SNF=Solids- not fat, TS= Total solid 61 Milk composition and quality of crossbred cow Table 2. Analysis of variance of milk quality traits
BG = Breed group, LS = Lactation stage, SG= Specific gravity, TA= Titrable acidity, MBRT= Methylene blue
reduction test

Table 3:
Milk composition and milk quality traits of different breed groups
Overall means for a particular parameter (column) that do not share any of the superscripts are significantly different (P≤ 0.05). BG=Breed group, MY= Milk yield, SNF=Solid not fat, TS = Total solid, SG = Specific gravity, TA= Titrable acidity, MBRT= Methylene blue reduction test. Talukder et al. /The Agriculturists 11(2): 58-65 (2013) 62 There was no significant difference in the mean from 82 to 90%. Although, Nevens (2010) found TA of milk among M50-1 and M50-3. The milk that the H20 percentage of five dairy breeds TA of M50-2 and M75-1 were significantly (Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guersey, Holstein and (P≤0.05) lower than M50-1 and M50-3. Jersey) ranged from 85.37 to 87.73%. The breed groups influences milk composition; when MY The milk of the six breed groups did not differ in increases, the H20 decreases. Animals belonging its fat, solid not fat (SNF), total solid (TS) and to the same breed group and maintained under water content (H20). The quality of the milk did uniform environmental conditions have been not differ with respect to the different breed groups. The fat content of milk in this study was (Anantakrishnan et al., 1993). The variation in 3.96 - 4.50%, which, is within the range for milk composition standard requirement for cows of composition of milk of individual animals. 3.5 - 5.0% (Anantakrishnan et al., 1993). Herrinton (2000) described that the percentage of For the milk quality traits, the milk Sp.Gr. was fat (3.65-3.90%) in milk shows more variation 1.030 - 1.031 for all breed groups which met the than percentage of the other major constituents. standard requirement for cow milk (1.028 - Farrington and Woll (2010) stated that the cow’s 1.032) (Anantakrishnan et al., 1993). TA of milk generally contains between 3 and 6 per cent milk did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among fat. The standard adopted by US government for M50-1, M50-3, M56 and M63. TA of milk for fat in milk is 3.25 per cent. Although, Nevens M50-2 and M75-1 was significantly (P≤0.05) (2010) found that the fat percentage of five dairy different from that of M50-1 and M50-3. The mean TA value for the breed group ranged Holstein and Jersey) were ranged from 3.41% to between 0.13 to 0.15. The natural acidity of 5.06%. Banerjee (2009) described that the fat percent of Indian dairy cattle ranged from 3.5 to (Anantakrishnan et al., 1993). The TA of milk in the present study met the required standard. The amount of phosphates, proteins, citrates and The mean for SNF in this study (9.02 - 9.40%) dissolved carbon dioxide in milk vary with breed was within the recommended value of 8.5 - 9.5% groups and in turn affect the acidic nature of (Anantakrishnan et al., 1993). TS content of the milk in the present study (13.01 - 13.81%) met significantly different among breed group. The the milk composition standard requirement for highest pH was in M56 group and was the lowest cows of 12.8 - 14.5% (Anantakrishnan et al., in M50-1 group and the ranged was 6.74 – 6.91. 1993). Although, Nevens (2010) described that Anantakrishnan et al. (1993) suggested that if the the TS percentage of five dairy breeds (Ayrshire, pH value of milk was 6.5 – 6.7, then the milk Brown Swiss, Guersey, Holstein and Jersey) sample might be conferred free from mastitis or with ranged from 12.27 to 14.54%. The Indian dairy cattle milk TS percent ranged from 12.20 to 15.0% as described by Banerjee (2009). The average mean of Methylene blue reduction test (MBRT) for the breed groups was 6.50 to The 86.26 - 87.07% water content observed in 7.20 hour. Anantakrishnan et al. (1993) the milk of the present study met the milk recommended that standard decolourization rate composition standard requirement for cows (84 of milk was 5 hours and Devids (1999) studied to 88%) (Anantakrishnan et al., 1993). Herrinton that decolourization rate of milk May to October (2000) described that the percentage of water 4.5 hour and November to April 5.5 hours. content of milk ranged from 87.20 to 87.90%. Higher MBRT value of the studies suggests that Farrington and Woll (2010) stated that the water bactological condition of milk was very less. The content of normal American cow’s milk ranged grade of milk of these studies was good. 63 Milk composition and quality of crossbred cow 3.2. Stage of lactation
recommended that there is decrease in SNF content from the time animal pastorates until Lactation stage had a significant (P≤0.05) effect about 15 days when it is stabilized except during on MY, fat, SNF, TS, H20, TA and SG (Table 4). the last three months when there is continuous The means of milk constituents and quality traits increase SNF%. Most literatures suggest that at the different stages of lactation (early, middle there is no increase in the SNF percentages of milk during the later part of lactation if the cows decreased, significantly (P≤0.01) with lactations are not pregnant (Rook et al., 1965; Spike et al., stage. Nevens (2010) described that the daily milk yield and to some extent also percentage of butter fat in the milk are profoundly affected the There was no significant (P>0.05) different ness stage of lactation. The milk produced by an of specific gravity of milk in the stage of lactation. The ranges of specific gravity of milk throughout the lactation period. The milk in the stage of lactation was 1.030 to 1.031. Milk production for a mature cow generally increases normally varies in specific gravity between rapidly after parturition, reaches a peak at around 1.028 to 1.034. Anantakrishnan et al. (1993) 90 day and then declines linearly (Wood, 1967; reported that generally the specific gravity of Schimidt, 1971; Kellogg et al., 1977). cow’s milk ranges from 1.028 to 1.032. The specific gravity of these studies required Fat% of early lactation was significantly standard. TS content of late lactation of milk was (P≤0.01) lower than middle and late lactations significantly (P≤0.05) higher than milk of early (3.69, 4.27 and 4.50, respectively). It might be lactation. Fat and SNF are the components in TS. due to the fact that fat and milk yield are inversely correlated. As milk yield increases fat These two components of milk increased in the percentage decreases. Banard et al. (1970) late lactation and so TS also increased. reported that approximately 10 weeks after calving fat concentration in the milk increased Water content of early lactation was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of late lactation. Water actually followed the similar trend as MY over the lactation stages. Early lactation TA was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than SNF at middle significantly (P≤0.05) higher (0.145) than middle lactation. Anantakrishnan et al. (1993)
Table 4.
Effect of stage of lactation on milk quality of different breed groups.
Means for particular parameter (row) that do not share any superscripts are significantly different (P≤0.05) Talukder et al. /The Agriculturists 11(2): 58-65 (2013) 64 3.3. Correlation among milk composition traits
Murrah buffaloes. Kaushik and Tandan (1979), Correlations among the milk composition and however, found that fat and TS were negatively quality traits for the six Sahiwal - Friesian correlated in Hariana cattle. The variation may crossbreed groups are presented in Table 5. be due to milk samples being collected from Generally, none of the milk composition traits different breed groups and farms and also was correlated with MY. Fat and TS generally, had significant (P≤0.05) negative correlation with H20 content for all breed groups. TS and 4. Conclusions
TA was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with fat The optimum level of Friesian inheritance in and SNF. The rest of the milk composition traits combination with Sahiwal for MY appear to be 75%, 56% and 50% with selection for milk correlation, with respect to breed groups. production. Therefore, the qualities of milk from the Sahiwal - Friesian crossbred cows met the TS and SNF were positively correlated. Kaushik required standard. It was revealed that the Sahiwal - Friesian crossbred animal was the best Narayanan (1990) found that TS and SNF was performer regarding the milk composition and positively correlated. Milk fat and TS content, generally, had significant (P≤0.05), negative correlation with H20 content of milk for all breed 5. Acknowledgements
groups for the three lactation stages. It indicates that H The authors would like to acknowledg the 20 is correlated in an inversely with fat and TS. In the present study, fat and TS showed Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of positive (P≤0.05) correlation in all lactation Agriculture, Malaysia and staff of the Ladang stages. Similar result was reported by Darshan Pusat Ternakan Haiwan Ayer Hitam, Johor for Lal and Narayanan (1990) in milk of cows and their assistance in making this study possible.
Table 5.
Correlations analysis of milk composition traits. (Pearsons correlation coefficients)
-0.866** 0-.599** 0-.987** -0.244** 0.142 Upper value 1, n=180, MY= Milk yield, SNF=Solid not fat, TS = Total solid, SG = Specific gravity, TA= Titrable acidity, MBRT= Methylene blue reduction test. 65 Milk composition and quality of crossbred cow References
component traits in Hariana cattle. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 49 (5): 327- Kellogg, W. D., Scott Urquhart, N. and Ortega, A. J. 1977. Estimating Holstein lactation curves with gamma curve. Journal of Barnard, C., Halley, S. and Scott, A. H. 1970. Variations in milk yield and milk quality, Vyas Ji Ka Nohra Sardar para, India, 256- Banerjee, G. C. 2009. A text book of Animal Osman, A. 1993. Dairy Production. Animal IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Faculty of Veterinary Medecine & Animal Sciences, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Darshan Lal and Narayanan, K. M. 1990. A Proc. Of Expert Discussion in Breeding number and stage of lactation. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 60(6):735- Devis, J. G. 1999. Milk testing (Bacteriological Rook, J. A. F. and Campling, R. C. 1965. Journal of Dairy Research: 32–45. (Cited from Schimidt, 1971, Biology of lactation, DVS. 1998. Annual report, Livestock production Schmidt, G. H. 1971. Factors Affecting the yield Spike, P. W. and Freman, A. E. 1967. Factors Everett, H. and Segun, O. 1985. Anatomy and milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 50: 1897. Sivarajasingam, S., Yusoff, S., Mohamad, N. G., Farrington, E. H. and Woll, F. W. 2010. Testing Eusof, J. 1982. Dairy cattle Production in milk and its products. Published by Axis Industries; Status and Potential, Genting Herrinton, B. L. 2000. Milk and milk processing. Sivarajasingam, S. and Kumar, A. R. 1993. IHK. 1999. Annual report, temperature, rainfall crossbreds. Livestock Production Science, Wood, P. D. P. 1967. Algebraic model of the lactation curve in cattle. Nature, Lond.


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