Pink – eye (one or two eye, Moraxella bovis infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis), “nothing new” just manage it through prevention. Author: Dr Johan Cloete (BVSc), MSD – Animal Health, South Africa, 2011 A short article with descriptions of the key appearance of symptoms, causes, complicating factors, consequences due to the disease, vaccinations and treatments in a herd of cattle. “Pinkeye (infectious kerato-conjunctivitis IKC) is a highly contagious disease of cattle which may result in partial or total blindness”. It is common for the disease to occur in the warm, moist summer months. • Disease symptoms Moraxella bovis is a bacterial disease which is transmitted primarily through the transfer by house flies (1)(musca domestica) to susceptible cattle of all ages. The disease results in a severe, painful condition which may result in temporary or eventually in permanent blindness or loss of an eye. This disease causes a reduction in average daily gain, milk production and also in reproduction performance.
• Main causes
Sun UV Light Pollen Dust Eye mucous Flies
• Complicating Factors Wind – may cause irritating dust or foreignparticles being deposited in the eye Moths – through their mode of feeding, moving from one animal to another Vitamin A shortage – is known to result in a deterioration of local immunity High population density – increased and severe dust incidence by animal movement Reduced immunity – e.g. immune suppressive diseases such as BVD (bovine virus diarrhea) Asymptomatic carriers – cattle that have recovered or that are less affected by the organisms yet still have an infection, late or early stage
• Possible consequences due to “Pinkeye” Causes stress in cattle Reduced growth Reduced weight gain Reduced weaning weights Reduced value of animals Reduced conception % Reduced libido Reduced milk production Reduced weaning weights of affected bull calves and heifers (1) In previous research that was conducted it was found that varying results in reduced weaning weights of these affected animals may be experienced. These reduced weaning weights may result in loss of financial income incurred at the time of selling the animals. One trial resulted in the following average live weight reduction versus controls -17kg -18kg (2) One affected eye Two affected eyes (male symbol) (female symbol)
• Do you have these symptoms in your cattle herd (beef or dairy) ?
• What is the solution to this ?
Penicillin and Tetracycline based antibiotics may be effective against these organisms. The challenge is that the disease may result in semi- or permanent blindness especially where poor hygiene and poor animal husbandry is prevalent.
• Vaccination and Indications PILIGUARD PINKEYE - 1 Trivalent A single dose vaccine for the control of Pink – eye caused by Moraxella bovis in cattle of all breeds, gender and age groups (4).
Piliguard Pink –eye is a vaccine containing bacterins from three different strains,
hereby providing a broad spectrum of immunity to cattle. Do not use in species for which it has not been registered as severe local swellings or adverse anaphylactic reactions may occur. Prevent “PINK EYE” annually with Piliguard, a Moraxella bovis bacterin vaccine. PILIGUARD PINKEYE - 1 Trivalent Usage instructions: Packaging:
References: (1). John G Kirkpatrick, DVM, & Dr David Lalman, Extension beef cattle Specialist, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service VTMD-9128, Pinkeye in Cattle Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK)
(2). Impact of Pinkeye (Infectious Bovine Kerato-conjunctivitis) on weaning and postweaning performance of Hereford calves, F.A. Thrift and J.R. Overfield, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 (3). VM/SAC, AGRI practice, economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in beef calves, A.H. Killinger. PhD; Deborah Valentine, BS; M.E. Mansfield, DVM; G.E. Ricketts, PhD; G.F. Cmarik, MS; A.H. Neumann, PhD; H.W. Norton, PhD; University of Illinois**; Urbana, Illinois 61801 (4). Pinkeye in Cattle, Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, Marie-Pierre Oury, Patricia Scharko and John Johns
BEHANDELING VAN HOMMELSTEKEN EN ALLERGIEËN 1. STEKEN VAN HOMMELS OF BIJEN Bij de hommels hebben, net als bij honingbijen en wespen, alleen de koninginnen en werksters een angel. De mannetjes dus niet. De angel is bedoeld als verdedigingswapen. Tijdens een steek wordt een geringe hoeveelheid gif via de angel in het lichaam gepompt. Bij de mens levert de steek meestal een korte, heftig