Pink – eye (one or two eye, Moraxella bovis infectious bovine
keratoconjunctivitis), “nothing new” just manage it through prevention.
Author: Dr Johan Cloete (BVSc), MSD – Animal Health, South Africa, 2011

A short article with descriptions of the key appearance of symptoms, causes,
complicating factors, consequences due to the disease, vaccinations and
treatments in a herd of cattle.
Pinkeye (infectious kerato-conjunctivitis IKC) is a highly contagious disease of
cattle which may result in partial or total blindness”. It is common for the disease to
occur in the warm, moist summer months.

Disease symptoms

Moraxella bovis is a bacterial disease which is transmitted primarily through the
transfer by house flies (1) (musca domestica) to susceptible cattle of all ages. The
disease results in a severe, painful condition which may result in temporary or
eventually in permanent blindness or loss of an eye. This disease causes a
reduction in average daily gain, milk production and also in reproduction
Main causes
Sun UV Light Pollen Dust Eye mucous Flies
Complicating Factors

– may cause irritating dust or foreignparticles being deposited in the eye
Moths – through their mode of feeding, moving from one animal to another
Vitamin A shortage – is known to result in a deterioration of local immunity
High population density – increased and severe dust incidence by animal
Reduced immunity – e.g. immune suppressive diseases such as BVD (bovine
virus diarrhea)
Asymptomatic carriers – cattle that have recovered or that are less affected by
the organisms yet still have an infection, late or early stage
Possible consequences due to “Pinkeye”

Causes stress in cattle
Reduced growth
Reduced weight gain
Reduced weaning weights
Reduced value of animals
Reduced conception %
Reduced libido
Reduced milk production
Reduced weaning weights of affected bull calves and heifers (1)
In previous research that was conducted it was found that varying results in
reduced weaning weights of these affected animals may be experienced.
These reduced weaning weights may result in loss of financial income incurred at
the time of selling the animals.
One trial resulted in the following average live weight reduction versus controls
-17kg -18kg (2)
One affected eye Two affected eyes
(male symbol) (female symbol)
Do you have these symptoms in your cattle herd (beef or dairy) ?
What is the solution to this ?
Penicillin and Tetracycline based antibiotics may be effective against these organisms. The challenge is that the disease may result in semi- or permanent blindness especially where poor hygiene and poor animal husbandry is prevalent. • Vaccination and Indications

A single dose vaccine for the control of Pink – eye caused by Moraxella bovis in
cattle of all breeds, gender and age groups (4).

Piliguard Pink –eye is a vaccine containing bacterins from three different strains,
hereby providing a broad spectrum of immunity to cattle. Do not use in species
for which it has not been registered as severe local swellings or adverse
anaphylactic reactions may occur.
Prevent “PINK EYE” annually with Piliguard, a Moraxella bovis bacterin
Usage instructions:
References: (1). John G Kirkpatrick, DVM, & Dr David Lalman, Extension beef cattle Specialist, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service VTMD-9128, Pinkeye in Cattle Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) (2). Impact of Pinkeye (Infectious Bovine Kerato-conjunctivitis) on weaning and postweaning performance of Hereford calves, F.A. Thrift and J.R. Overfield, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 (3). VM/SAC, AGRI practice, economic impact of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in beef calves, A.H. Killinger. PhD; Deborah Valentine, BS; M.E. Mansfield, DVM; G.E. Ricketts, PhD; G.F. Cmarik, MS; A.H. Neumann, PhD; H.W. Norton, PhD; University of Illinois**; Urbana, Illinois 61801 (4). Pinkeye in Cattle, Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis, Marie-Pierre Oury, Patricia Scharko and John Johns

Source: http://www.infovet.co.za/medias/media/mediacenter/ZA/HealthforumPiliguardINFOVET2011.pdf


BEHANDELING VAN HOMMELSTEKEN EN ALLERGIEËN 1. STEKEN VAN HOMMELS OF BIJEN Bij de hommels hebben, net als bij honingbijen en wespen, alleen de koninginnen en werksters een angel. De mannetjes dus niet. De angel is bedoeld als verdedigingswapen. Tijdens een steek wordt een geringe hoeveelheid gif via de angel in het lichaam gepompt. Bij de mens levert de steek meestal een korte, heftig

Microsoft word - keuhkonsiirtopotilaan_hoito-ohjeet.doc

HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOLLINEN KESKUSSAIRAALA Meilahden sairaala Kirurgian klinikka / Sydän- ja thoraxkirurgia Sisätautien klinikka / Kardiologia Keuhkonsi rtopotilaan kotihoito-ohjeet 2.1 HOITOMUOTONA KEUHKONSIIRTO .2 2.1 SIIRRETYN KEUHKON TOIMINTA .2 3. HYLKIMISEN JA INFEKTIOIDEN ENNALTAEHKÄISY.3 3.1.1 IMMUNOSUPRESSIOLÄÄKKEET (eli hylkimisen estolääkkeet) .3 3.1.2 MUU LÄÄKEHOITO .5

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